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  1. Recent evidence suggests a potentially protective effect of increasing ketone body availability via accepting low macronutrient intake early after onset of critical illness. The impact of blood glucose control...

    Authors: Jan Gunst, Astrid De Bruyn, Michael P. Casaer, Sarah Vander Perre, Lies Langouche and Greet Van den Berghe

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:373

    Content type: Research

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  2. Drowning is a global threat and one of the leading causes of injury around the world. The impact of drowning conditions including water salinity on patients’ prognosis remains poorly explored in Intensive Care...

    Authors: Florian Reizine, Agathe Delbove, Alexandre Dos Santos, Laetitia Bodenes, Pierre Bouju, Pierre Fillâtre, Aurélien Frérou, Guillaume Halley, Olivier Lesieur, Maud Jonas, Florian Berteau, Jean Morin, David Luque-Paz, Rémy Marnai, Anthony Le Meur, Cécile Aubron…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:372

    Content type: Research

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  3. Fever and hypothermia have been observed in septic patients. Their influence on prognosis is subject to ongoing debates.

    Authors: Daniel O. Thomas-Rüddel, Peter Hoffmann, Daniel Schwarzkopf, Christian Scheer, Friedhelm Bach, Marcus Komann, Herwig Gerlach, Manfred Weiss, Matthias Lindner, Hendrik Rüddel, Philipp Simon, Sven-Olaf Kuhn, Reinhard Wetzker, Michael Bauer, Konrad Reinhart and Frank Bloos

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:368

    Content type: Research

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  4. The large, international, randomized controlled NeoPInS trial showed that procalcitonin (PCT)-guided decision making was superior to standard care in reducing the duration of antibiotic therapy and hospitaliza...

    Authors: A. J. L. M. Geraerds, Wendy van Herk, Martin Stocker, Salhab el Helou, Sourabh Dutta, Matteo S. Fontana, Frank A. B. A. Schuerman, Rita K. van den Tooren-de Groot, Jantien Wieringa, Jan Janota, Laura H. van der Meer-Kappelle, Rob Moonen, Sintha D. Sie, Esther de Vries, Albertine E. Donker, Urs Zimmerman…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:367

    Content type: Research

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  5. Authors: Natsuko Kaku, Yu Nakagama, Michinori Shirano, Sari Shinomiya, Kazuhiro Shimazu, Katsuaki Yamazaki, Yoshito Maehata, Ryo Morita, Yuko Nitahara, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Yasumitsu Mizobata and Yasutoshi Kido

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:366

    Content type: Letter

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    The original article was published in Critical Care 2021 25:248

  6. Timing of swallows in relation to respiratory phases is associated with aspiration events. Oxygen therapy possibly affects the timing of swallows, which may alter airway protective mechanisms.

    Authors: Pornpan Rattanajiajaroen and Napplika Kongpolprom

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:365

    Content type: Research

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  7. Intensive care unit (ICU) survivors have reduced physical function likely due to skeletal muscle wasting and weakness acquired during critical illness. However, the contribution of pre-morbid muscle mass has n...

    Authors: Matthew Thackeray, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Neil Orford, Mark A. Kotowicz and Julie A. Pasco

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:364

    Content type: Research

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  8. Zinc is a trace element that plays a role in stimulating innate and acquired immunity. The role of zinc in critically ill patients with COVID-19 remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and sa...

    Authors: Khalid Al Sulaiman, Ohoud Aljuhani, Abdulrahman I. Al Shaya, Abdullah Kharbosh, Raed Kensara, Alhomaidi Al Guwairy, Aisha Alharbi, Rahmah Algarni, Shmeylan Al Harbi, Ramesh Vishwakarma and Ghazwa B. Korayem

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:363

    Content type: Research

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  9. Severe or life threatening infections are common among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Most infections in the ICU are bacterial or fungal in origin and require antimicrobial therapy for clinical res...

    Authors: Marin H. Kollef, Andrew F. Shorr, Matteo Bassetti, Jean-Francois Timsit, Scott T. Micek, Andrew P. Michelson and Jose Garnacho-Montero

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:360

    Content type: Review

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  10. Examinations based on lung tissue specimen can play a significant role in the diagnosis for critically ill and intubated patients with lung infiltration. However, severe complications including tension pneumot...

    Authors: Yuean Zhao, Faming Jiang, He Yu, Ye Wang, Zhen Wang, Peng Sun, Zhong Ni, Weiya Wang, Lili Jiang, Junping Fan, Lanlan Zhang, Charles A. Powell and Zongan Liang

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:359

    Content type: Research

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  11. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play an important role in sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI). Accumulating evidence suggests PMN-derived exosomes as a new subcellular entity acting as a fundamental li...

    Authors: Yang Jiao, Ti Zhang, Chengmi Zhang, Haiying Ji, Xingyu Tong, Ran Xia, Wei Wang, Zhengliang Ma and Xueyin Shi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:356

    Content type: Research

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  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care o...

    Authors: Matthieu Schmidt, Elise Langouet, David Hajage, Sarah Aissi James, Juliette Chommeloux, Nicolas Bréchot, Petra Barhoum, Lucie Lefèvre, Antoine Troger, Marc Pineton de Chambrun, Guillaume Hékimian, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Martin Dres, Jean-Michel Constantin, Muriel Fartoukh, Pascal Leprince…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:355

    Content type: Research

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  13. The randomized, double-blind, phase 3 ASPECT-NP trial evaluated the efficacy of 3 g of ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) versus 1 g of meropenem infused every 8 h for 8 to 14 days for treatment of adults with hospi...

    Authors: Andrew F. Shorr, Christopher J. Bruno, Zufei Zhang, Erin Jensen, Wei Gao, Hwa-Ping Feng, Jennifer A. Huntington, Brian Yu, Elizabeth G. Rhee, Carisa De Anda, Sumit Basu and Marin H. Kollef

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:354

    Content type: Research

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  14. The link between oral bacteria and respiratory infections is well documented. Dental plaque has the potential to be colonized by respiratory pathogens and this, together with microaspiration of oral bacteria, ...

    Authors: Lewis Winning, Fionnuala T. Lundy, Bronagh Blackwood, Daniel F. McAuley and Ikhlas El Karim

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:353

    Content type: Review

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  15. Timely recognition of the deteriorating inpatient remains challenging. Wearable monitoring systems (WMS) may augment current monitoring practices. However, there are many barriers to implementation in the hosp...

    Authors: Carlos Areia, Christopher Biggs, Mauro Santos, Neal Thurley, Stephen Gerry, Lionel Tarassenko, Peter Watkinson and Sarah Vollam

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:351

    Content type: Research

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  16. Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is one feature of post cardiac arrest encephalopathy. We studied the incidence and features of CVR by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and associations with outcome a...

    Authors: Johanna Laurikkala, Anders Aneman, Alexander Peng, Matti Reinikainen, Paul Pham, Pekka Jakkula, Johanna Hästbacka, Erika Wilkman, Pekka Loisa, Jussi Toppila, Thomas Birkelund, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg and Markus B. Skrifvars

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:350

    Content type: Research

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  17. Septic shock is characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response and microcirculatory dysfunction. There is currently no specific agent for treating septic shock. Anisodamine is an agent extracted from t...

    Authors: Yuetian Yu, Cheng Zhu, Yucai Hong, Lin Chen, Zhiping Huang, Jiancang Zhou, Xin Tian, Dadong Liu, Bo Ren, Cao Zhang, Caibao Hu, Xinan Wang, Rui Yin, Yuan Gao and Zhongheng Zhang

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:349

    Content type: Research

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  18. Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies ...

    Authors: Stephana J. Moss, Karla D. Krewulak, Henry T. Stelfox, Sofia B. Ahmed, Melanie C. Anglin, Sean M. Bagshaw, Karen E. A. Burns, Deborah J. Cook, Christopher J. Doig, Alison Fox-Robichaud, Robert Fowler, Laura Hernández, Michelle E. Kho, Maia Kredentser, Kira Makuk, Srinivas Murthy…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:347

    Content type: Research

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  19. The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe.

    Authors: Christian Jung, Jesper Fjølner, Raphael Romano Bruno, Bernhard Wernly, Antonio Artigas, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Joerg C. Schefold, Georg Wolff, Malte Kelm, Michael Beil, Sigal Sviri, Peter Vernon van Heerden, Wojciech Szczeklik, Miroslaw Czuczwar, Michael Joannidis, Sandra Oeyen…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:344

    Content type: Research

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  20. Approximately one-third of sepsis patients experience poor outcomes including chronic critical illness (CCI, intensive care unit (ICU) stay > 14 days) or early death (in-hospital death within 14 days). We soug...

    Authors: Faheem W. Guirgis, Lauren Page Black, Morgan Henson, Guillaume Labilloy, Carmen Smotherman, Charlotte Hopson, Ian Tfirn, Elizabeth L. DeVos, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Lyle Moldawer, Susmita Datta, Todd M. Brusko, Alexis Hester, Andrew Bertrand, Victor Grijalva, Alexander Arango-Esterhay…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:341

    Content type: Research

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  21. Awake prone positioning (APP) is widely used in the management of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcome of COVID-19 patients who received ...

    Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, David L. Vines, Sara Mirza, Ahmad Elshafei, Julie A. Jackson, Lauren J. Harnois, Tyler Weiss, J. Brady Scott, Matthew W. Trump, Idrees Mogri, Flor Cerda, Amnah A. Alolaiwat, Amanda R. Miller, Andrew M. Klein, Trevor W. Oetting, Lindsey Morris…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:340

    Content type: Research

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  22. Evidence from previous studies comparing lung ultrasound to thoracic computed tomography (CT) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is limited due to multiple methodologic weaknesses. While addressing methodol...

    Authors: Jasper M. Smit, Mark E. Haaksma, Michiel H. Winkler, Micah L. A. Heldeweg, Luca Arts, Erik J. Lust, Paul W. G. Elbers, Lilian J. Meijboom, Armand R. J. Girbes, Leo M. A. Heunks and Pieter R. Tuinman

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:339

    Content type: Research

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  23. Trends in the incidence and outcomes of sepsis using a Japanese nationwide database were investigated.

    Authors: Taro Imaeda, Taka-aki Nakada, Nozomi Takahashi, Yasuo Yamao, Satoshi Nakagawa, Hiroshi Ogura, Nobuaki Shime, Yutaka Umemura, Asako Matsushima and Kiyohide Fushimi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:338

    Content type: Research

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  24. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but its heterogeneity challenges the identification of effective therapies. Defining subphenotypes with distinct progn...

    Authors: Neha A. Sathe, Leila R. Zelnick, Carmen Mikacenic, Eric D. Morrell, Pavan K. Bhatraju, J. Brennan McNeil, Susanna Kosamo, Catherine L. Hough, W. Conrad Liles, Lorraine B. Ware and Mark M. Wurfel

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:336

    Content type: Research

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  25. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) emerged as important fungal complications in patients with COVID-19-associated severe acute respiratory failure (ARF). Whether mould ...

    Authors: Stefan Hatzl, Alexander C. Reisinger, Florian Posch, Juergen Prattes, Martin Stradner, Stefan Pilz, Philipp Eller, Michael Schoerghuber, Wolfgang Toller, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Philipp Metnitz, Martin Rief, Florian Prüller, Alexander R. Rosenkranz, Thomas Valentin, Robert Krause…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:335

    Content type: Research

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  26. Delirium is a clinical syndrome occurring in heterogeneous patient populations. It affects 45–87% of critical care patients and is often associated with adverse outcomes including acquired dementia, institutio...

    Authors: Emily M. L. Bowman, Emma L. Cunningham, Valerie J. Page and Daniel F. McAuley

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:334

    Content type: Review

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  27. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), dead space fraction has been independently associated with mortality. We hypothesized that early measurement of the difference between arterial and end-tidal CO2 (ar...

    Authors: Paola Lecompte-Osorio, Steven D. Pearson, Cole H. Pieroni, Matthew R. Stutz, Anne S. Pohlman, Julie Lin, Jesse B. Hall, Yu M. Htwe, Patrick G. Belvitch, Steven M. Dudek, Krysta Wolfe, Bhakti K. Patel and John P. Kress

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:333

    Content type: Research

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  28. Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first thr...

    Authors: Antoni Torres, Anna Motos, Jordi Riera, Laia Fernández-Barat, Adrián Ceccato, Raquel Pérez-Arnal, Dario García-Gasulla, Oscar Peñuelas, José Angel Lorente, Alejandro Rodriguez, David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Raquel Almansa, Albert Gabarrús, Rosario Menéndez, Jesús F. Bermejo-Martin, Ricard Ferrer…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:331

    Content type: Research

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  29. There is ongoing demographic ageing and increasing longevity of the population, with previously devastating and often-fatal diseases now transformed into chronic conditions. This is turning multi-morbidity int...

    Authors: Michael Beil, Hans Flaatten, Bertrand Guidet, Sigal Sviri, Christian Jung, Dylan de Lange, Susannah Leaver, Jesper Fjølner, Wojciech Szczeklik and Peter Vernon van Heerden

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:330

    Content type: Viewpoint

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  30. Survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest is poor, but current literature shows substantial heterogeneity in reported survival rates. This study aims to evaluate care for patients suffering in-hospital cardiac...

    Authors: B. Y. Gravesteijn, M. Schluep, H. F. Lingsma, R. J. Stolker, H. Endeman and S. E. Hoeks

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:329

    Content type: Research

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  31. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-Cov2 virus has become the greatest health and controversial issue for worldwide nations. It is associated with different clinical manifestati...

    Authors: Mohammad M. Banoei, Roshan Dinparastisaleh, Ali Vaeli Zadeh and Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:328

    Content type: Research

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  32. A helmet, comprising a transparent hood and a soft collar, surrounding the patient’s head can be used to deliver noninvasive ventilatory support, both as continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive po...

    Authors: Andrea Coppadoro, Elisabetta Zago, Fabio Pavan, Giuseppe Foti and Giacomo Bellani

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:327

    Content type: Review

    Published on: