World Health Organisation. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Weekly epidemiological update and weekly operational update. Weekly epidemiological update Published 20 October 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-re.
Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, et al. Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy. JAMA. 2020;323:1574–81.
CDC, COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html#table-2. Accessed 16 Dec 2020.
CDC Cases, Data, and Surveillance. Available at https://protect-public.hhs.gov/pages/hospital-capacity. Accessed 16 Dec 2020.
Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m1985.
Karagiannidis C, Mostert C, Hentschker C, et al. Case characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of 10021 patients with COVID-19 admitted to 920 German hospitals: an observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8:853–62.
Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, et al. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. 2020;323:2052–9.
Mitra AR, Fergusson NA, Lloyd-Smith E, et al. Baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units in Vancouver, Canada: a case series. CMAJ. 2020;192:E694–701.
Ñamendys-Silva SA, Gutiérrez-Villaseñor A, Romero-González JP. Hospital mortality in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients in Mexico. Intensive Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06256-3.
Amato MBP, Barbas CSV, Medeiros DM, et al. Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:347–54.
Amato MBP, Meade MO, Slutsky AS, et al. Driving pressure and survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:747–55.
Papazian L, Forel J-M, Gacouin A, et al. Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1107–16.
Guérin C, Reignier J, Richard J-C, et al. Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:2159–68.
Network ARDS, Brower RG, Matthay MA, Morris A, Schoenfeld D, Thompson BTWA. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1301–8.
Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169:467–73.
Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. Available from: http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/ox.
COVID-ICU Group on behalf of the REVA Network and the COVID-ICU Investigators. Clinical characteristics and day-90 outcomes of 4244 critically ill adults with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06294-x.
Grasselli G, Tonetti T, Protti A, et al. Pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre prospective observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30370-2.
Ferrando C, Suarez-Sipmann F, Mellado-Artigas R, et al. Clinical features, ventilatory management, and outcome of ARDS caused by COVID-19 are similar to other causes of ARDS. Intensive Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06192-2.
Cummings MJ, Baldwin MR, Abrams D, et al. Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study. Lancet (London, England). 2020;395:1763–70.
Gupta S, Hayek SS, Wang W, et al. Factors Associated With Death in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the US. JAMA Intern Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3596.
Grasselli G, Greco M, Zanella A, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units in Lombardy. Italy JAMA Intern Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3539.
Botta M, Tsonas AM, Pillay J, et al. Ventilation management and clinical outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 (PRoVENT-COVID): a national, multicentre, observational cohort study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30459-8.
Roedl K, Jarczak D, Thasler L, et al. Mechanical ventilation and mortality among 223 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a multicentric study in Germany. Aust Crit Care. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2020.10.009.
Auld SC, Caridi-Scheible M, Blum JM, et al. ICU and ventilator mortality among critically Ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019. Crit Care Med. 2020;48:e799–804.
Schenck EJ, Hoffman K, Goyal P, Choi J, Torres L, Rajwani K, Tam CW, Ivascu N, Martinez FJ, Berlin DA. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2020;17:1158–61.
Sinha P, Calfee CS, Cherian S, et al. Prevalence of phenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a prospective observational study. Lancet Respir Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30366-0.
Ziehr DR, Alladina J, Petri CR, Maley JH, Moskowitz A, Medoff BD, Hibbert KA, Thompson BT, Hardin CC. Respiratory pathophysiology of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19: a cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201:1560–4.
Bhatraju PK, Ghassemieh BJ, Nichols M, et al. Covid-19 in critically Ill patients in the Seattle region—case series. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:2012–22.
Haudebourg A-F, Perier F, Tuffet S, de Prost N, Razazi K, Mekontso Dessap A, Carteaux G. Respiratory mechanics of COVID-19- versus non-COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202:287–90.
Beloncle FM, Pavlovsky B, Desprez C, Fage N, Olivier P-Y, Asfar P, Richard J-C, Mercat A. Recruitability and effect of PEEP in SARS-Cov-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10:55.
Diehl J-L, Peron N, Chocron R, et al. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchanges in the early course of COVID-19 ARDS: a hypothesis-generating study. Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10:95.
Roesthuis L, van den Berg M, van der Hoeven H. Advanced respiratory monitoring in COVID-19 patients: use less PEEP! Crit Care. 2020;24:230.
Bos LDJ, Paulus F, Vlaar APJ, Beenen LFM, Schultz MJ. Subphenotyping acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19: consequences for ventilator management. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2020;17:1161–3.
Pandya A, Kaur NA, Sacher D, et al. Ventilatory mechanics in early vs late intubation in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 patients with ARDS. Chest. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.2084.
Zangrillo A, Beretta L, Scandroglio AM, et al. Characteristics, treatment, outcomes and cause of death of invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS in Milan, Italy. Crit Care Resusc. 2020;22:200–11.
Laverdure F, Delaporte A, Bouteau A, Genty T, Decailliot F, Stéphan F. Impact of initial respiratory compliance in ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19. Crit Care. 2020;24:412.
Pedersen HP, Hildebrandt T, Poulsen A, Uslu B, Knudsen HH, Roed J, Poulsen TD, Nielsen HB. Initial experiences from patients with COVID-19 on ventilatory support in Denmark. Dan Med J. 2020;67(5):1–4.
Carsetti A, Damia Paciarini A, Marini B, Pantanetti S, Adrario E, Donati A. Prolonged prone position ventilation for SARS-CoV-2 patients is feasible and effective. Crit Care. 2020;24:225.
Liu X, Liu X, Xu Y, Xu Z, Huang Y, Chen S, Li S, Liu D, Lin Z, Li Y. Ventilatory ratio in hypercapnic mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201:1297–9.
Cavayas YA, Noël A, Brunette V, et al. Early experience with critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Montreal. Can J Anaesth. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12630-020-01816-z.
PubMed search. Available at https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=covid-19&size=200. Accessed 16 Dec 2020.
Richards-Belle A, Orzechowska I, Gould DW, et al. COVID-19 in critical care: epidemiology of the first epidemic wave across England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Intensive Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06267-0.
Quah P, Li A, Phua J. Mortality rates of patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of the emerging literature. Crit Care. 2020;24:285.
Wunsch H. Mechanical ventilation in COVID-19: interpreting the current epidemiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202:1–4.
Lim ZJ, Subramaniam A, Reddy MP, et al. Case fatality rates for COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation: a meta-analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202006-2405OC.
Gattinoni L, Coppola S, Cressoni M, Busana M, Rossi S, Chiumello D. COVID-19 does not lead to a “typical” acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201:1299–300.
Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Caironi P, Busana M, Romitti F, Brazzi L, Camporota L. COVID-19 pneumonia: different respiratory treatments for different phenotypes? Intensive Care Med. 2020;46:1099–102.
Marini JJ, Gattinoni L. Management of COVID-19 respiratory distress. JAMA. 2020;323:2329–30.
Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, et al. Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries. JAMA. 2016;315:788–800.
Fan E, Del Sorbo L, Goligher EC, et al. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline: mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195:1253–63.
Mauri T, Spinelli E, Scotti E, et al. Potential for lung recruitment and ventilation-perfusion mismatch in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome from coronavirus disease 2019. Crit Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004386.
van der Zee P, Somhorst P, Endeman H, Gommers D. Electrical impedance tomography for positive end-expiratory pressure titration in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;202:280–4.
Grasso S, Mirabella L, Murgolo F, Di Mussi R, Pisani L, Dalfino L, Spadaro S, Rauseo M, Lamanna A, Cinnella G. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure in “high compliance” severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004640.
Grieco DL, Bongiovanni F, Chen L, et al. Respiratory physiology of COVID-19-induced respiratory failure compared to ARDS of other etiologies. Crit Care. 2020;24:529.