- Open Access
Bench-to-bedside review: The role of β-lactamases in antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative infections
Critical Care volume 14, Article number: 224 (2010)
Multidrug resistance has been increasing among Gram-negative bacteria and is strongly associated with the production of both chromosomal- and plasmid-encoded β-lactamases, whose number now exceeds 890. Many of the newer enzymes exhibit broad-spectrum hydrolytic activity against most classes of β-lactams. The most important plasmid-encoded β-lactamases include (a) AmpC cephalosporinases produced in high quantities, (b) the expanding families of extended-spectrum β-lactamases such as the CTX-M enzymes that can hydrolyze the advanced-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams, and (c) carbapenemases from multiple molecular classes that are responsible for resistance to almost all β-lactams, including the carbapenems. Important plasmid-encoded carbapenemases include (a) the KPC β-lactamases originating in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and now appearing worldwide in pan-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and (b) metallo-β-lactamases that are produced in organisms with other deleterious β-lactamases, causing resistance to all β-lactams except aztreonam. β-Lactamase genes encoding these enzymes are often carried on plasmids that bear additional resistance determinants for other antibiotic classes. As a result, some infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens can now be treated with only a limited number, if any, antibiotics. Because multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is observed in both nosocomial and community isolates, eradication of these resistant strains is becoming more difficult.
Much has been publicized recently about the expansion of hospital- and community-based infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially those caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . However, a second, but potentially more important, threat to critical care is that caused by the multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The response of the pharmaceutical companies over the past decade has been to design new drugs that can treat VRE and both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA infections . However, what is lacking from the current pharmaceutical arsenal are drugs to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections in the hospital setting . Because β-lactam antibiotics have long been a component in the treatment regimen for serious nosocomial infections, any threat to their efficacy must be examined closely.
Among the β-lactam antibiotics of clinical utility for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Gram-negative bacteria are penicillins such as amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins such as cefpodoxime and cefuroxime axetil, parenteral cephalosporins such as cefepime and ceftriaxone, and the carbapenems such as doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. Combinations of penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors also play prominent therapeutic roles, with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid being a major factor in the treatment of community infections and piperacillin-tazobactam being important for serious hospital-acquired infections. In this review, the role of β-lactamases will be discussed as a major cause of resistance to these safe and widely prescribed drugs.
Infections associated with Gram-negative bacteria
Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria represented the majority of serious infections prior to the late 1950 s. Thus, it is not surprising that the increased use of penicillins to treat the associated diseases caused β-lactam resistance to arise in the clinical setting, first in the staphylococci and then in Gram-negative bacteria. When penicillins lost their utility as monotherapy for most disease states, penicillins and cephalosporins that were more potent were developed in an effort to retain the favorable clinical properties of the β-lactam antibiotics. In addition to predictable efficacy in a number of clinical indications, these agents have continued to demonstrate a pharmacodynamic and safety profile that makes them attractive therapeutic agents.
As shown in Table 1, the most common families of β-lactams that are used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens include extended-spectrum cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone and cefepime, penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and piperacillin-tazobactam, and the carbapenems . Infection types range from uncomplicated community-acquired infections such as otitis media to serious nosocomial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Orally administered β-lactams such as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the oral cephalosporins cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefuroxime axetil are recommended for community infections. For nosocomial infections that are not resistant to cephalosporins, parenteral drugs that may be effective include the injectable penicillin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and cephalosporins. Carbapenems are often reserved to treat the most serious infections caused by many multidrug-resistant pathogens as they are most able to escape at least some of the common β-lactam resistance mechanisms that affect the other β-lactam families. However, the continued use of these antibiotics for important disease states has maintained the pressure on many pathogenic and commensal bacteria to retain enzymatic inactivation mechanisms that render penicillins ineffective in many disease states. This pressure has resulted in a surge in β-lactam resistance due to inactivating enzymes, particularly in Gram-negative pathogens.
Background of β-lactamase resistance
In 1940, an enzyme produced by a strain of Bacillus coli, now known as Escherichia coli, was shown to destroy the ability of penicillin to kill bacterial cells . This first report of β-lactamase activity occurred before widespread use of penicillin, demonstrating the presence of β-lactam-inactivating enzymes in the natural environment. These enzymes have the ability to hydrolyze the β-lactam chemical bond that distinguishes β-lactam antibiotics from other antibacterial agents, thereby rendering the molecules incapable of killing bacteria.
Today, over 890 unique β-lactamases have been identified in naturally occurring bacterial isolates [6, 7]. These enzymes have been separated into groups, either according to the amino acid sequences of the enzymes or according to their inactivating properties for different classes of β-lactams. The molecular classification scheme divides β-lactamases into four classes based on the amino acid sequences of the proteins [8–10], whereas numerically more functional groups have been assigned based on the hydrolysis and inhibition profiles of the enzymes [7, 10, 11]. The major functional groups of current clinical importance are shown in Table 2, where enzyme groups are commonly named according to the most important class of β-lactam that is inactivated. Correlations between the molecular and functional categories are also provided in this compilation.
Descriptions of β-lactamase groups
Group 1/Class C cephalosporinases are among the most abundant β-lactamases on the basis of the number of organisms that produce these enzymes. These cephalosporinases, frequently named as species-specific AmpC enzymes, are often found in most Enterobacteriaceae as chromosomal enzymes. At low production levels, they can abolish the antibacterial activity of cephalosporins and can also demonstrate inactivating capabilities toward other β-lactams, especially when produced at high levels. These enzymes are generally present at a low (basal) level but may be induced to high levels in the presence of selected inducing agents such as amoxicillin or clavulanic acid. Cephalosporinases may also be produced at very high levels in the absence of an inducer, in a 'derepressed' state. This has been reported to occur after selection of stable mutants during therapy with broad-spectrum cephalosporins, but not cefepime [12, 13]. These mutants often arise as a result of a multistep process, with elevated cephalosporin MICs (in the high susceptible or intermediate range) observed in those organisms with impaired permeability characteristics prior to selection of high-level AmpC mutants that are fully resistant .
Treatment of organisms producing an inducible AmpC cephalosporinase has created some controversy. Although a group of investigators has recommended that any AmpC-inducible Enterobacteriaceae be regarded as resistant to all third-generation cephalosporins , the clinical data supporting this recommendation are mixed . Studies have indicated that the selection of resistant Enterobacter spp. has ranged as high as 19% in a 1991 study (6/31), with higher rates observed in patients with bacteremia , but more recent studies have not corroborated those observations . For example, in an 18-monthstudy (2005-2006) of 732 patients infected with enterobacteriaceae capable of producing AmpC β-lactamases, treatment with broad-spectrum cephalosporins resulted in resistance in 5% (11/218) of the patients compared with 0% (0/20) of the patients treated with cefepime, with the emergence of resistance being more frequent in Enterobacter spp. .
The suggestion has been made that therapeutic decisions be made on the basis of specific cephalosporin MICs rather than on the presence of an inducible AmpC enzyme . This year, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA) lowered susceptibility breakpoints for cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime against the Enterobacteriaceae . Lower breakpoints should help to decrease the number of 'susceptible' isolates that may be likely to emerge as resistant strains following therapy with broad-spectrum cephalosporins but will allow cephalosporins to be used against highly susceptible organisms. The new cephalosporin breakpoints will also classify as resistant those ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae that will not respond pharmacodynamically to approved therapeutic doses, thereby reducing the need for specific ESBL testing other than for epidemiological purposes .
Plasmid-encoded AmpC cephalosporinases closely related in sequence to chromosomal AmpC enzymes from Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, or Aeromonas spp. also appear in Enterobacteriaceae in organisms that produce at least one other β-lactamase . Although some of the plasmid-encoded AmpC enzymes are inducible, most of the enzymes are produced at much higher levels than seen for basal AmpC cephalosporinases, similar to isolates with derepressed AmpC enzymes .
Common penicillinases (functional group 2b, molecular class A) include the SHV-1 enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae and the TEM-1 β-lactamase found in many strains of Neisseria gonorrheae  and Haemophilus influenzae . These two enzymes occurred in high prevalence among the Enterobacteriaceae prior to the introduction of the broad-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefotaxime and ceftazidime [20, 21]. The group 2b enzymes are readily inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam . As a result, infections caused by organisms producing a single penicillinase can be readily treated with a β-lactamase inhibitor combination such as amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, or piperacillin-tazobactam.
Particularly worrisome β-lactamases are found among the extended-spectrum β-lactamases, or ESBLs (functional group 2be or molecular class A). These enzymes were recognized shortly after the introduction of 'β-lactamase-stable' cephalosporins and aztreonam. ESBLs were initially identified as variants of the common SHV-1 or TEM-1 β-lactamase, often differing from the parent enzymes by only one or two amino acids. After their recognition in the late 1980 s concomitantly in Europe  and the US [23, 24], they became associated with major outbreaks of cephalosporin-resistant infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae [22, 25]. The genes that coded for these enzymes were generally found on plasmids that conferred resistance to multiple antibiotic classes and that were readily transferable among species . Even during the first reported outbreaks, other Enterobacteriaceae such as C. freundii, Enterobacter aerogenese, and Serratia marcescens were identified as ESBL producers .
ESBLs are still associated with major outbreaks of β-lactam resistance. However, the early SHV and TEM variants have been largely replaced by the CTX-M family of ESBLs. The first two CTX-M enzymes were identified at approximately the same time in the early 1990s in western Europe and South America in individual clinical isolates [28, 29]. Within a decade, the CTX-M β-lactamases became the predominant ESBL family in many medical centers such that they have largely replaced most of the TEM- and SHV-derived ESBLs throughout the world [30–32].
CTX-M enzymes were particularly slow to emerge in the US  but have recently begun to dominate the ESBL populations of some US health centers . The MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) surveillance study of 2007 identified CTX-M genes in 80% of the US medical centers that reported ESBL-producing isolates in their survey . The early CTX-M-producing isolates were frequently resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone but susceptible to ceftazidime because of a strong preference for hydrolysis of the former cephalosporins. However, some members of the CTX-M family demonstrate high hydrolysis rates for all of the extended-spectrum cephalosporins as a result of single amino acid mutations, resulting in complete cephalosporin resistance in all of the producing pathogens [36, 37]. It is possible that regional differences in the emergence of the CTX-M family were due to localized preferences for therapeutic regimens employing cefotaxime or ceftriaxone in Europe and South America compared with more frequent use of ceftazidime in the US and Canada.
The 'oxacillinase' family of β-lactamases, the OXA enzymes, was originally named to reflect the ability to hydrolyze oxacillin (or cloxacillin) . Recently, a highly important subgroup of the OXA enzymes was identified as a causative factor for decreasing carbapenem susceptibility in non-fermentative bacteria such as Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The OXA enzymes in Acinetobacter spp. are mainly chromosomally located, with little apparent transfer among strains . Although these enzymes are structurally related to the older OXA β-lactamases, these new members of the OXA family have carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity. Because hydrolysis rates may be slow compared with other carbapenemases, full carbapenem resistance may require an additional resistance mechanism such as a porin mutation or upregulated efflux pump . Importantly, carbapenemases within the OXA family have the ability to confer carbapenem resistance to organisms that may already have intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotic classes . This is especially evident in the Acinetobacter spp. that have been identified from soldiers and civilian populations returning from military duty in the Middle East .
Another emerging family of β-lactamases is the serine carbapenemase group (group 2f/class A). This group of enzymes has the ability to hydrolyze most β-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenems that are generally stable to hydrolysis by all other β-lactamases that have serine at the active site of the enzyme . Early reports of this group of chromosomal enzymes were from single isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in the western US and London, followed by small outbreaks in Boston and Chicago a decade later . The first plasmid-encoded serine carbapenemases in the KPC enzyme family were reported from the mid-Atlantic region of the US, again in single Klebsiella isolates (from the late 1990s) that were not immediately transferred within the reporting hospitals . However, KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains soon began to spread into the New York City metropolitan area, then on to Israel, France, and now to many other areas of the world, including southern Europe, southeast Asia, and South America, with high clonality among and within geographical locations . In addition, the genes encoding the KPC enzymes have spread into other Enterobacteriaceae as well as into P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. [41, 44].
Metallo-β-lactamases, or MBLs (functional group 3/molecular class B) belonging to another carbapenemase family, were initially recognized as species-specific β-lactamases with limited contributions to the overall resistance profile in most medical centers . These zinc-requiring chromosomal enzymes appeared in the same strain with other β-lactamases that generally had higher hydrolysis rates for penicillins and cephalosporins. Although these enzymes have relatively weak β-lactamase activity against all β-lactams except monobactams (aztreonam), their distinctive property is the ability to hydrolyze carbapenems . The MBLs were thereby responsible for carbapenem resistance in organisms such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas spp., and a small population of Bacteroides fragilis. However, the identification of IMP-1, a plasmid-encoded MBL, in 1990  changed our perspective on the group 3 β-lactamases.
Plasmid-mediated carbapenem resistance has now become a serious clinical issue in parts of the world such as southern Europe, Japan, Brazil, and Asia. The initial IMP-1 enzyme now belongs to a family with 26 variants; the VIM family of MBLs has 23 variants . These enzymes were first identified in non-fermentative bacteria such as P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii but have now spread to many of the Enterobacteriaceae, including Enterobacter spp., E. coli, C. freundii, Klebsiella spp., and S. marcescens . They are frequently associated with integrons (genetic dissemination systems) containing multiple antibiotic resistance determinants that are easily transferred among species. As with the species-specific MBLs, the plasmidic MBLs appear in organisms that almost always produce at least one other β-lactamase with an overlapping hydrolysis profile. Thus, it is possible that the MBL gene may be lost in the absence of specific antibiotic pressure, especially carbapenem therapy.
Clinical response to β-lactamases
When broad-spectrum cephalosporins were introduced into clinical practice, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae began to arise prolifically, resulting in the loss of these previously effective agents. In the late 20th century, many resistant Gram-negative bacteria were often treated with carbapenems as single therapeutic agents. At that time, it seemed that almost all β-lactamase-mediated resistances could be overcome by imipenem or meropenem. These antibiotics were not hydrolyzed by the AmpC cephalosporinases or by ESBLs. Carbapenem monotherapy was the approach taken by some hospitals in which ceftazidime-resistant, ESBL-producing, K. pneumoniae isolates represented a majority of the Klebsiella isolates in the intensive care unit (ICU) . For example, in a New York hospital  with a large outbreak of infections caused by ESBL-producing pathogens in the early 1990s, cephalosporin usage was reduced 80% throughout the hospital, accompanied by a 71% reduction in ceftazidimeresistant Klebsiellae in the ICU. However, the collateral damage was that overuse of carbapenems resulted in a 69% increase in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa  and in infections caused by imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter that were treatable only with polymyxin B or ampicillin-sulbactam . Interestingly, a recent study from a New York ICU showed that strict infection control combined with routine rectal surveillance cultures was the most important factor associated with a reduction in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates but not with the reduction of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa or Acinetobacter spp.; antibiotic usage was not correlated with this reduction .
Today, we are seeing situations that are even more complex as multiple broad-spectrum β-lactamases are spreading throughout Gram-negative pathogens. Global dissemination of new β-lactamases is expected, with epidemiological characteristics easily traced with currently available molecular techniques. Recent studies have demonstrated the clonal appearance of a highly homogeneous CTX-M-15-producing E. coli strain that was present in both hospital and community isolates from eight countries in Europe, North America, and Asia . The first KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolate reported in France was directly traced to a patient who had previously been treated in a New York City hospital ; subsequent analyses of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified a major sequence type that accounts for over 70% of the CDC KPC isolates . OXA carbapenemases have been identified in multiple Acinetobacter spp. clones worldwide [40, 51, 52].
Organisms with multiple β-lactamases responsible for high-level resistance to most β-lactams are also appearing more frequently. A K. pneumoniae clinical isolate has been reported to produce eight different β-lactamases, including at least one ESBL, an AmpC, and a KPC enzyme . The MBL VIM-1 was identified in a Greek K. pneumoniae isolate that also produced the KPC-2 carbapenemase . Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacte r isolates have now been reported with both a VIM-2-like MBL as well as an OXA-23 carbapenemase in the same strain . These organisms are resistant not only to all β-lactams but to many other antibiotic classes as well. Multidrug resistance has recently been reported in KPC-producing K. pneumoniae in metropolitan New York City  and in MBL-producing isolates  because of plasmid-encoded resistance determinants that confer resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim, sulphonamides, and chloramphenicol. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (Arlington, VA, USA) made Gram-negative resistance a major focus in their 2009 list of ESKAPE pathogens that include multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. .
On a more optimistic note, perhaps plasmid-encoded MBLs and their co-production with non-carbapenemases may not be the disaster some have envisioned. In the absence of a carbapenem-selective pressure in a patient, it is possible that the MBL gene may be lost, although that organism would still maintain its resistance profile to other β-lactams. This speculation is based on the experiences of Japan and Italy, two countries where plasmid-encoded MBLs were first identified. In Japan and Italy, MBL genes that have spread countrywide after their initial reports have been responsible primarily for small sporadic outbreaks in these countries and have not been a continuous cause of carbapenem resistance throughout all Gram-negative species at a single medical center [58, 59]. However, co-production of two carbapenemases, such as a VIM and KPC or a VIM and an OXA carbapenemase, may lead to much more serious consequences in which β-lactam antibiotics could never be useful.
Although the main focus has been on multidrug-resistant infections in the hospital setting, community sources for β-lactamase-mediated resistances are being reported more frequently. Community-acquired ESBLs in locations such as nursing homes or long-term health care residences have been described for several years [31, 32, 60–62]. As one might expect, the even more deleterious plasmid-encoded carbapenemases are also being described in patients outside the hospital. Nine E. coli isolates producing the KPC-2 and KPC-3 carbapenemases, enzymes most frequently found in K. pneumoniae strains, were identified in seven nursing homes in the New York City area . In Greece, a set of 45 patients was identified with community-onset urinary tract infections caused by VIM-2 MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates . It is noteworthy that the first CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates in the US were identified from sources that included a number of urinary tract isolates originating from outpatients . Thus, even if infection control procedures are instituted and strictly enforced in hospitals and medical centers, resistant Gram-negative pathogens have already been released into the community, where they can reside in relatively healthy people until challenged by changes in disease status, at which time they may become the causative pathogen for a new infection.
Resistance in Gram-negative pathogens is increasing at an alarming rate. New β-lactamases that are transferred among species on plasmids with multiple resistance factors are also being described as a continuing exercise. The implications for therapeutic use of the workhorse β-lactam antibiotics are sobering. However, it is possible that some of these β-lactamases may exact a high price from the producing organism, especially when multiple β-lactamases are produced by a single strain. Small changes in therapeutic approaches may allow the flora to be altered within a medical center so that bacterial producers of ESBLs or KPCs or MBLs are only a small portion of the nosocomial flora and can be contained in isolated areas. Combination therapy with a β-lactamase inhibitor combination or a carbapenem, and at least one agent from another antibiotic class, may be effective against isolates that have decreased susceptibilities. Use of the maximally approved therapeutic doses should always be considered for serious infections when β-lactam MICs are close to the susceptibility breakpoints. Finally, β-lactam antibiotics should not be used if their MICs are in the highly resistant category, particularly in a hospital known to have high levels of plasmid-encoded β-lactamases that are being transferred throughout the facility; it should be noted that this epidemiological information may need to be determined with the assistance of a reference laboratory. With judicious use of antibiotics and strict infection control procedures, it may be possible to limit the effects of these newer β-lactamases until the time when new antibacterial agents are developed to counteract their effects.
KB was employed from 1973 to 2009 in the pharmaceutical industry, where she studied the mechanism of action and characterization of β-lactamases as they affected the development of new antibiotics. She was responsible for defining the functional classification of β-lactamases which has been in use for over 20 years. Her research supported the development of the β-lactam antibiotics aztreonam (E.R. Squibb & Sons, Princeton, NJ, USA), piperacillintazobactam (Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, NY, USA), doripenem (Johnson & Johnson and Peninsula Pharmaceuticals, Alameda, CA, USA), and ceftobiprole (Johnson & Johnson and Basilea Pharmaceuticals, Basel, Switzerland). She currently serves as an adjunct professor at Indiana University (Bloomington, IN, USA), where she teaches in the biotechnology program.
This article is part of a review series on Infection, edited by Steven Opal. Other articles in the series can be found online at http://ccforum.com/articles/theme-series.asp?series=CC_Infection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
intensive care unit
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Chambers HF, Deleo FR: Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009, 7: 629-641. 10.1038/nrmicro2200
Abbanat D, Morrow B, Bush K: New agents in development for the treatment of bacterial infections. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2008, 8: 582-592. 10.1016/j.coph.2008.08.001
Boucher HW, Talbot GH, Bradley JS, Edwards JE, Gilbert D, Rice LB, Scheld M, Spellberg B, Bartlett J: Bad bugs, no drugs: No ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009, 48: 1-12. 10.1086/595011
Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, Chambers HF, Saag MS, (Eds): The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2009. 39th edition. Sperryville, VA: Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc; 2009.
Abraham EP, Chain E: An enyzme from bacteria able to destroy penicillin. 1940. Rev Infect Dis 1988, 10: 677-678. 10.1038/146837a0
Jacoby GA, Bush K: Amino acid sequences for TEM, SHV and OXA extended-spectrum and inhibitor resistant β-lactamases.2009. [http://www.lahey.org/Studies/]
Bush K, Jacoby GA: An updated functional classification of β-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010, 54: 969-976. 10.1128/AAC.01009-09
Ambler RP: The structure of β-lactamases. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1980, 289: 321-331. 10.1098/rstb.1980.0049
Jaurin B, Grundstrom T: ampC cephalosporinase of Escherichia coli K-12 has a different evolutionary origin from that of β-lactamases of the penicillinase type. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981, 78: 4897-4901. 10.1073/pnas.78.8.4897
Huovinen P, Huovinen S, Jacoby GA: Sequence of PSE-2 beta-lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988, 32: 134-136.
Bush K, Jacoby GA, Medeiros AA: A functional classification scheme for β-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995, 39: 1211-1233.
Choi SH, Lee JE, Park SJ, Lee SO, Jeong JY, Kim MN, Woo JH, Kim YS: Emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing Ampc beta-lactamase: implications for antibiotic use. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008, 52: 995-1000. 10.1128/AAC.01083-07
Livermore DM, Brown DF, Quinn JP, Carmeli Y, Paterson DL, Yu VL: Should third-generation cephalosporins be avoided against AmpC-inducible Enterobacteriaceae? Clin Microbiol Infect 2004, 10: 84-85. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2004.00831.x
Goldstein FW: Cephalosporinase induction and cephalosporin resistance: a longstanding misinterpretation. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002, 8: 823-825. 10.1046/j.1469-0691.2002.00492.x
Chow JW, Fine MJ, Shlaes DM, Quinn JP, Hooper DC, Johnson MP, Ramphal R, Wagener MM, Miyashiro DK, Yu VL: Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Ann Int Med 1991, 115: 585-590.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: . In Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twentieth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S20. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2010.
Jacoby GA: AmpC beta-lactamases. Clin Microbiol Rev 2009, 22: 161-182. 10.1128/CMR.00036-08
Perine PL, Schalla W, Siegel MS, Thornsberry C, Biddle J, Wong K-H, Thompson SE: Evidence for two distinct types of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Lancet 1977, 2: 993-997. 10.1016/S0140-6736(77)92891-4
Scriver SR, Walmsley SL, Kau CL, Hoban DJ, Brunton J, McGeer A, Moore TC, Witwicki E: Determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Canadian isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and characterization of their beta-lactamases. Canadian Haemophilus study group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994, 38: 1678-1680.
Medeiros AA: Beta-lactamases. Br Med Bull 1984, 40: 18-27.
Roy C, Foz A, Segura C, Tirado M, Fuster C, Reig R: Plasmid-determined β-lactamases identified in a group of 204 ampicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae . J Antimicrob Chemother 1983, 12: 507-510. 10.1093/jac/12.5.507
Sirot J, Chanal C, Petit A, Sirot D, Labia R, Gerbaud G: Klebsiella pneumoniae and other Enterobacteriaceae producing novel plasmid-mediated β-lactamaes markedly active against third-generation cephalosporins: epidemiological studies. Rev Infect Dis 1988, 10: 850-859.
Jacoby GA, Medeiros AA, O'Brien TF, Pinto ME, Jiang H: Broad-spectrum, transmissible β-lactamases. N Engl J Med 1988, 319: 723-723.
Quinn JP, Miyashiro D, Sahm D, Flamm R, Bush K: Novel plasmid-mediated β-lactamase (TEM-10) conferring selective resistance to ceftazidime and aztreonam in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989, 33: 1451-1456.
Meyer KS, Urban C, Eagan JA, Berger BJ, Rahal JJ: Nosocomial outbreak of Klebsiella infection resistant to late-generation cephalosporins. Ann Int Med 1993, 119: 353-358.
Sirot D, Sirot J, Labia R, Morand A, Courvalin P, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Perroux R, Cluzel R: Transferable resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae : identification of CTX-1, a novel β-lactamase. J Antimicrob Chemother 1987, 20: 323-334. 10.1093/jac/20.3.323
Kitzis MD, Billot-Klein D, Goldstein FW, Williamson R, Nhieu GTV, Carlet J, Acar JF, Gutmann L: Dissemination of the novel plasmid-mediated β-lactmase CTX-1, which confers resistance to broad spectrum cephalosporins, and its inhibition by β-lactamase inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988, 32: 9-14.
Bauernfeind A, Grimm H, Schweighart S: A new plasmidic cefotaximase in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli . Infection 1990, 18: 294-298. 10.1007/BF01647010
Bauernfeind A, Stemplinger I, Jungwirth R, Ernst S, Casellas JM: Sequences of beta-lactamase genes encoding CTX-M-1 (MEN-1) and CTX-M-2 and relationship of their amino acid sequences with those of other beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996, 40: 509-513.
Hawkey PM: Prevalence and clonality of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Asia. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008,14(Suppl 1):159-165. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01855.x
Livermore DM, Canton R, Gniadkowski M, Nordmann P, Rossolini GM, Arlet G, Ayala J, Coque TM, Kern-Zdanowicz I, Luzzaro F, Poirel L, Woodford N: CTX-M: Changing the face of ESBLs in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007, 59: 165-174. 10.1093/jac/dkl483
Villegas MV, Kattan JN, Quinteros MG, Casellas JM: Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in South America. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008,14(Suppl 1):154-158. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01869.x
Bush K: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in North America, 1987-2006. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008,14(Suppl 1):134-143. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01848.x
Lewis JS, Herrera M, Wickes B, Patterson JE, Jorgensen JH: First report of the emergence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) as the predominant ESBL isolated in a U.S. Health care system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007, 51: 4015-4021. 10.1128/AAC.00576-07
Castanheira M, Mendes RE, Rhomberg PR, Jones RN, Castanheira M, Mendes RE, Rhomberg PR, Jones RN: Rapid emergence of bla CTX-M among Enterobacteriaceae in U.S. Medical centers: molecular evaluation from the MYSTIC program (2007). Microb Drug Resist 2008, 14: 211-216. 10.1089/mdr.2008.0827
Cartelle M, del Mar Tomas M, Molina F, Moure R, Villanueva R, Bou G: High-level resistance to ceftazidime conferred by a novel enzyme, CTX-M-32, derived from CTX-M-1 through a single Asp240-Gly substitution. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004, 48: 2308-2313. 10.1128/AAC.48.6.2308-2313.2004
Kimura S, Ishii Y, Tateda K, Yamaguchi K: Predictive analysis of ceftazidime hydrolysis in CTX-M-type beta-lactamase family members with a mutational substitution at position 167. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2007, 29: 326-331. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.09.014
Walther-Rasmussen J, Hoiby N: OXA-type carbapenemases. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006, 57: 373-383. 10.1093/jac/dki482
Walsh TR, Walsh TR: Clinically significant carbapenemases: an update. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008, 21: 367-371. 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328303670b
Hujer KM, Hujer AM, Hulten EA, Bajaksouzian S, Adams JM, Donskey CJ, Ecker DJ, Massire C, Eshoo MW, Sampath R, Thomson JM, Rather PN, Craft DW, Fishbain JT, Ewell AJ, Jacobs MR, Paterson DL, Bonomo RA: Analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Isolates from military and civilian patients treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006, 50: 4114-4123. 10.1128/AAC.00778-06
Queenan AM, Bush K: Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007, 20: 440-458. 10.1128/CMR.00001-07
Yigit H, Queenan AM, Rasheed JK, Biddle JW, Domenech-Sanchez A, Alberti S, Bush K, Tenover FC: Carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella oxytoca harboring carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase KPC-2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003, 47: 3881-3889. 10.1128/AAC.47.12.3881-3889.2003
Kitchel B, Rasheed JK, Patel JB, Srinivasan A, Navon-Venezia S, Carmeli Y, Brolund A, Giske CG: Molecular epidemiology of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in the United States: clonal expansion of multilocus sequence type 258. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009, 53: 3365-3370. 10.1128/AAC.00126-09
Robledo IE, Aquino EE, Santé MI, Santana JL, Otero DM, León CF, Vázquez GJ: Detection of KPC in Acinetobacter sp. in Puerto Rico. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010, 54: 1354-1357. 10.1128/AAC.00899-09
Watanabe M, Iyobe S, Inoue M, Mitsuhashi S: Transferable imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991, 35: 147-151.
Rahal JJ, Urban C, Horn D, Freeman K, Segal-Maurer S, Maurer J, Mariano N, Marks S, Burns JM, Dominick D, Lim M: Class restriction of cephalosporin use to control total cephalosporin resistance in nosocomial Klebsiella . JAMA 1998, 280: 1233-1237. 10.1001/jama.280.14.1233
Go ES, Urban C, Burns J, Kreiswirth B, Eisner W, Mariano N, Mosinka-Snipas K, Rahal JJ: Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter infections sensitive only to polymyxin B and sulbactam. Lancet 1994, 344: 1329-1332. 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)90694-7
Kochar S, Sheard T, Sharma R, Hui A, Tolentino E, Allen G, Landman D, Bratu S, Augenbraun M, Quale J: Success of an infection control program to reduce the spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae . Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009, 30: 447-452. 10.1086/596734
Nicolas-Chanoine MH, Blanco J, Leflon-Guibout V, Demarty R, Alonso MP, Canica MM, Park YJ, Lavigne JP, Pitout J, Johnson JR: Intercontinental emergence of Escherichia coli clone o25:H4-st131 producing CTX-M-15. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008, 61: 273-281. 10.1093/jac/dkm464
Naas T, Nordmann P, Vedel G, Poyart C: Plasmid-mediated carbapenemhydrolyzing β-lactamase KPC in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005, 49: 4423-4424. 10.1128/AAC.49.10.4423-4424.2005
Mendes RE, Spanu T, Deshpande L, Castanheira M, Jones RN, Fadda G: Clonal dissemination of two clusters of Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 or OXA-58 in Rome, Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009, 15: 588-592. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02770.x
Lu PL, Doumith M, Livermore DM, Chen TP, Woodford N, Lu P-L, Doumith M, Livermore DM, Chen T-P, Woodford N: Diversity of carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Acinetobacter baumannii from a Taiwan hospital: Spread of plasmid-borne OXA-72 carbapenemase. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009, 63: 641-647. 10.1093/jac/dkn553
Moland ES, Hong SG, Thomson KS, Larone DH, Hanson ND: A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing at least eight different beta-lactamases including an AmpC and KPC beta-lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007, 51: 800-801. 10.1128/AAC.01143-06
Giakkoupi P, Pappa O, Polemis M, Vatopoulos AC, Miriagou V, Zioga A, Papagiannitsis CC, Tzouvelekis LS: Emerging Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates coproducing KPC-2 and VIM-1 carbapenemases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009, 53: 4048-4050. 10.1128/AAC.00690-09
Lee K, Kim MN, Choi TY, Cho SE, Lee S, Whang DH, Yong D, Chong Y, Woodford N, Livermore DM, Group K: Wide dissemination of OXA-type carbapenemases in clinical Acinetobacter spp. isolates from South Korea. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009, 33: 520-524. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.10.009
Elemam A, Rahimian J, Mandell W: Infection with panresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae : a report of 2 cases and a brief review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2009, 49: 271-274. 10.1086/600042
Miriagou V, Tzelepi E, Daikos GL, Tassios PT, Tzouvelekis LS: Panresistance in VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae . J Antimicrob Chemother 2005, 55: 810-811. 10.1093/jac/dki080
Kimura S, Alba J, Shiroto K, Sano R, Niki Y, Maesaki S, Akizawa K, Kaku M, Watanuki Y, Ishii Y, Yamaguchi K: Clonal diversity of metallo-beta-lactamase-possessing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in geographically diverse regions of Japan. J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43: 458-461. 10.1128/JCM.43.1.458-461.2005
Rossolini GM, Luzzaro F, Migliavacca R, Mugnaioli C, Pini B, Luca FD, Perilli M, Pollini S, Spalla M, Amicosante G, Toniolo A, Pagani L: First countrywide survey of acquired metallo-β-lactamases in gram-negative pathogens in Italy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008, 52: 4023-4029. 10.1128/AAC.00707-08
Wiener J, Quinn JP, Bradford PA, Goering RV, Nathan C, Bush K, Weinstein RA: Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. JAMA 1999, 281: 517-523. 10.1001/jama.281.6.517
Pitout JDD, Gregson DB, Church DL, Elsayed S, Laupland KB: Community-wide outbreaks of clonally related CTX-M-14 beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains in the Calgary health region. J Clin Microbiol 2005, 43: 2844-2849. 10.1128/JCM.43.6.2844-2849.2005
Munoz-Price LS: Long-term acute care hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 2009, 49: 438-443. 10.1086/600391
Urban C, Bradford PA, Tuckman M, Segal-Maurer S, Wehbeh W, Grenner L, Colon-Urban R, Mariano N, Rahal JJ: Carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase beta-lactamases associated with long-term care facilities. Clin Infect Dis 2008, 46: e127-130. 10.1086/588048
Tsakris A, Poulou A, Kristo I, Pittaras T, Spanakis N, Pournaras S, Markou F: Large dissemination of VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing healthcare-associated community-onset infections. J Clin Microbiol 2009, 47: 3524-3529. 10.1128/JCM.01099-09
KB was employed by Johnson & Johnson (Raritan, NJ, USA) from 1997 to 2009 and now receives retirement compensation from Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (Princeton, NJ, USA), and Wyeth (Madison, NJ, USA). She received consulting fees from Novexel (Romainville, France), Cubist Pharmaceuticals (Lexington, MA, USA), and Protez Pharmaceuticals (Malvern, PA, USA) in 2009 and is a stockholder of Johnson & Johnson. She is a patent holder on Wyeth patents for β-lactam compounds that were never developed. She has received compensation from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Wyeth, both of which hold patents on β-lactam antibiotics. No organization supported the writing or publishing of this manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Bush, K. Bench-to-bedside review: The role of β-lactamases in antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative infections. Crit Care 14, 224 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc8892
- Cefuroxime Axetil
- Carbapenem Resistance