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Table 1 Common β-lactam antibiotics that may be used as monotherapy to treat infections caused by Gram-negative Bacteria

From: Bench-to-bedside review: The role of β-lactamases in antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative infections

Infection type Phenotype Possible β-lactam antibioticsa, b
Bacterial meningitis Wild-type Cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, cefepime, meropenem
Intra-abdominal Wild-type Amoxicillin-clavulanic acidc, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, cefotetan
  ESBL-producing Carbapenemsd
Osteomyelitis Wild-type Ceftazidime, cefepime
Otitis media Wild-type Amoxicillin ± clavulanic acidc, cefdinirc, cefpodoximec, cefprozilc, cefuroxime axetilc, ceftriaxone
Lower respiratory infections and pneumonia Wild-type Amoxicillin-clavulanic acidc, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam, cefdinirc, cefpodoximec, cefprozilc, cefuroxime axetilc, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime
  ESBL-producing Carbapenems
Gonorrhea Non-β-lactamase-producing Penicillin G
  β-lactamase-producing Cefiximec, cefpodoximec, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime
Skin and skin structure Wild-type Carbapenems
Ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid
Urinary tract (complicated) Wild-type Ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone
  ESBL-producing Carbapenems
  1. aAntibiotics listed are based on those recommended in the 2009 Sanford Guide [4], assuming that the causative Gram-negative bacteria are susceptible to these agents. bAgents are dosed intravenously unless otherwise noted. cOral dosing. dCarbapenems for infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. For infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ertapenem should not be used. ESBL, extended-spectrum β-lactamase.