Bench-to-bedside review: Association of genetic variation with sepsis
Critical Care volume 13, Article number: 210 (2009)
Susceptibility and response to infectious disease is, in part, heritable. Initial attempts to identify the causal genetic polymorphisms have not been entirely successful because of the complexity of the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that influence susceptibility and response to infectious disease and because of flaws in study design. Potential associations between clinical outcome from sepsis and many inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms, innate immunity pathway gene polymorphisms, and coagulation cascade polymorphisms have been observed. Confirmation in large, well conducted, multicenter studies is required to confirm current findings and to make them clinically applicable. Unbiased investigation of all genes in the human genome is an emerging approach. New, economical, high-throughput technologies may make this possible. It is now feasible to genotype thousands of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome in thousands of patients, thus addressing the issues of small sample size and bias in selecting candidate polymorphisms and genes for genetic association studies. By performing genome-wide association studies, genome-wide scans of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, and testing for differential allelic expression and copy number polymorphisms, we may yet be able to tease out the complex influence of genetic variation on susceptibility and response to infectious disease.
Infectious diseases impose a huge burden on modern health-care systems – a problem that is even more significant in developing countries. In older adults infectious diseases accounted for 13% of all hospital charges in the USA in one study . Another study conducted in a pediatric population estimated that in 2003 a total of 286,739 infectious disease hospitalizations occurred among infants in the USA, accounting for 42.8% of all hospitalizations of infants . Additionally, we face the problem of increased hospital mortality rates and costs due to increasingly resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [3–6] and vancomycin-resistant enterococci [7, 8]. An understanding of what determines susceptibility and response to infectious disease is central to reducing its associated burden and improving health care.
Susceptibility and response to infectious disease is heritable. Sorensen and colleagues  found that the genetic contribution to death from infection is five times greater than the genetic contribution to cancer. Since that report was published, multiple groups have confirmed that susceptibility to and outcome from infectious disease is heritable [10–12]. As a result, investigators have sought to identify genetic variants associated with altered susceptibility and response to infectious disease. Identification of the genetic variants associated with infectious disease would permit early identification of patients at greater risk for adverse outcome from, for example, pneumonia, sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It would also promote development of novel, perhaps individually tailored, treatments for these patients. In addition, detrimental side effects and expense of adjuvant therapy could be avoided in other patients who, by genotype, are predicted not to benefit.
Initial investigations have highlighted the complexity of the immune response and thus the large number of host genes that probably play a role in determining an individual's susceptibility and response to infection. Additionally, environmental factors may greatly modify genetic effects. Important environmental factors include type of organism, antibiotic susceptibility, site of infection, how soon the infection is detected, and whether it is treated appropriately with antibiotics, resuscitation, supportive medical management and/or surgery. Searching for genetic contributors to susceptibility and response to infection is challenging in view of these important confounders. Inadequate sample size and mismatching of patients with control individuals may contribute to the lack of reproducibility seen in case-control studies. Gene-gene interactions, epigenetic effects, and patterns of linkage disequilibrium contained within haplotypes are all issues that must be addressed. Despite this extremely high degree of complexity, high-throughput genotyping technologies and large patient cohorts may now allow us to tease out the key genetic variants that influence susceptibility and response to infection.
Candidate gene-based approach to genetic association studies
From a genetics perspective, infection is a complex disease that arises from the interaction of an individual's genotype with the environment (infectious micro-organisms). Classic Mendelian, single-gene diseases are studied using techniques such as linkage analysis. In linkage analysis an identifiable genetic marker is used as a tool to track the inheritance pattern of a nearby disease gene that has not yet been identified but whose approximate location is known . This approach has not worked well for complex diseases that may involve many genes. In contrast, by using the known pathophysiology of specific diseases to direct good guesses – called the candidate gene approach  – investigators have discovered many associations between genetic variants in these relevant candidate genes and clinical outcome in diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and infection. Candidate gene association studies determine whether the frequency of a 'risk' allele is higher in affected than in unaffected individuals. Linkage studies are not as powerful as candidate gene association studies in identifying risk genetic variants for common, complex diseases  because of the modest effect of risk alleles in complex disease and poor resolution. However, whole-genome genotyping in very large populations of patients with specific complex diseases is starting to yield discoveries.
Genetic association studies in infectious diseases have largely focused on candidate genes in the inflammatory and immune systems, because these are assumed to be important in the immune response to an infection. Polymorphisms in inflammatory and immune system genes may lead to inappropriate activation of the inflammatory system in response to invading micro-organisms. Critical care investigators have also looked at candidate genes in the coagulation system, because an inappropriate coagulation response is important in the pathology of sepsis and is intricately tied to the immune response [15–18].
Once a candidate gene had been selected for study, variants within the gene must be tested for association with phenotype. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most commonly occurring type of variant in the genome, and they are the most frequently studied in genetic association studies. SNPs are a single-base change in the DNA sequence. HapMap  and related projects have now identified most common SNPs in the human genome (about 2.2 million SNPs with a minor allele frequency >5%) in a variety of ancestral groups, greatly simplifying SNP selection for genetic association studies. Polymorphisms that change the amino acid sequence of a gene, that are in a potential regulatory sequence, or that alter a splice site of a gene have a higher probability of having functional consequences. Therefore, these polymorphisms have traditionally been the most popular candidates for genetic association studies .
Candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphism associations in sepsis
Early genetic association studies using a candidate gene strategy focused on potential functional SNPs have produced somewhat unclear and conflicting results. We review some well known examples in genes familiar to many intensive care physicians.
Tumour necrosis factor-α promoter polymorphisms
The A allele of a G-to-A polymorphism at position -308 in the promoter region of the tumour necrosis factor-α gene was initially found to be associated with adverse outcome in patients with septic shock . A number of subsequent studies yielded similar results [21, 22] but several studies , including a recent large study , were unable to reproduce these findings. Interestingly, the tumour necrosis factor-α gene is located close to the lymphotoxin-α gene, the heat shock protein 70 gene, and other inflammatory pathway genes. A number of investigators have suggested that SNPs in these genes may be the real cause of any observed differences in patient outcomes.
A key inflammatory cytokine that has been well examined in genetic association studies in infectious disease is IL-6. These studies have also produced conflicting results and highlight the problems with reproducibility in genetic association studies. The C allele of a G-to-C polymorphism at position -174 of the IL-6 gene was associated with decreased levels of IL-6  in one study, and another study found an association between -174 GG and increased serum IL-6 concentrations . However, a third study found no association between either allele and serum concentrations . In critically ill patients, one study found no association between the -174 G/C polymorphism and incidence of sepsis, although -174 GG was associated with improved survival rates in patients with sepsis , whereas our group found that the -174 G/C polymorphism was not associated with a difference in survival .
CD14 is an innate immunity receptor for lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid, which – in association with Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and MD2 – forms the lipopolysaccharide receptor complex [30–33]. A C-to-T polymorphism at position -159 in the promoter of the CD14 gene has been examined for association with intermediate phenotypes and clinical outcomes related to infection by numerous groups (Table 1). There have been a number of contradictory reports regarding the risk for developing, and outcome from, severe sepsis and septic shock [34–40]. The CD14 -159 C/T polymorphism does not appear to be associated with risk for septic shock or mortality in Asian populations [39, 40], and there have been conflicting reports in mixed ethnicity and Caucasian patient samples [34–37, 41].
Toll-like receptor-2 polymorphisms
TLR2 is an innate immune receptor for Gram-positive bacteria that activates the nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade and transcription of inflammatory cytokines [42–44]. Polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene have been associated with increased risk for Gram-positive infections and decreased responsiveness to bacterial peptides [45–48] but, in contrast, not with mortality from severe S. aureus infection .
Haplotype associations in sepsis
With the development of public resources such as dbSNP, HapMap , the Human Genome Diversity Project , and gene-based re-sequencing projects (SeattleSNPs  and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences SNPs Program ), we are beginning to develop a better understanding of the patterns of diversity across the human genome. Data from the HapMap project have been used to describe patterns of linkage disequilibrium in the human genome, while detailed descriptions of variation in individual genes allow researchers to describe haplotypes – patterns of SNPs that are inherited as a single unit – of individual genes (Figure 1). These tools have allowed researchers to move away from a candidate (functional) SNP-based approach to a broader survey of 'tag' SNPs that represent all known and unknown polymorphisms in a haplotype of a candidate gene. This eliminates the potential bias of examining only candidate functional SNPs. The SeattleSNPs Program  has been especially useful in picking tag-SNPs to examine in infectious disease, because they focus on re-sequencing genes of the inflammatory and immune systems .
We may not have a complete understanding of how polymorphisms in genes alter their expression or function, and so it may be more useful to select SNPs that allow us to describe all of the variation in a gene, and not just the variation that we presume may have functional significance. Our limited knowledge of transcriptional regulation and the structure of linkage disequilibrium may in part be responsible for the lack of reproducibility of many genetic association studies in sepsis. A haplotype-based approach to candidate gene association studies enables us to avoid making presumptions about the functional significance of SNPs in candidate genes. A number of haplotype-based studies have found associations between candidate genes and infectious disease.
Protein C haplotypes
Two polymorphisms 13 base pairs apart in the promoter region of the protein C gene (-1,654 C/T and -1,641 G/A) have been suggested to alter outcome in sepsis  and to alter protein C levels in blood  (Figure 1). Chen and coworkers  found that the CA haplotype of protein C -1,654 C/T and -1,641 G/A was associated with increased risk for death and organ dysfunction in Chinese Han patients with severe sepsis. The C allele of protein C 673 T/C (linkage disequilibrium with the CA haplotype, D' = 100%) was also found to be associated with increased mortality and organ dysfunction in a cohort of 100 North American East Asians with severe sepsis .
IL-6 haplotype clades were associated with mortality and organ dysfunction in critically ill adults . A different, common IL-6 haplotype running from nucleotides -1,363 to +4,835 relative to the transcription start site of IL-6, and spanning the gene, conferred risk for susceptibility and response to acute lung injury . However, haplotype analysis revealed that the IL-6 gene was not associated with susceptibility and response to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a Spanish population .
Mannose-binding lectin haplotypes
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds sugar groups on microbial surfaces and activates the 'alternative', or lectin, complement pathway . Three structural mutations have been found in exon 1 of the MBL gene [62–64] that occur as six different haplotypes [65–67]. These haplotypes have consistently been associated with different serum levels of MBL [65–67], but there have been conflicting reports of the association between MBL haplotypes and outcome from sepsis [48, 68, 69], as well as from other infectious and inflammatory processes [70–76].
C-reactive protein haplotypes
The C-reactive protein haplotype 1,184C; 2,042C; 2,911C was found to be more frequent in individuals who were not colonized with S. aureus in the vestibulum nasi, and host genotype was associated with the carriage of specific S. aureus genotypes . This is interesting in that it highlights the importance of looking not just at host genetic variation but also at variation in micro-organisms and how this affects the interaction between host and micro-organism.
Other inflammation/coagulation gene haplotypes
A fibrinogen-β gene haplotype was associated with mortality in sepsis . An IL-10 haplotype has been associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis from pneumonia but not in patients with extrapulmonary sepsis .
Although haplotype analysis has produced some interesting results, there remains the problem of nonreproducible results seen in genetic association studies based on functional SNPs. Additionally, groups appear to be inconsistent in their definition of haplotypes within candidate genes, and haplo-types defined in one patient population may not be applicable to another. With the growing collection of documented SNPs in the genome, our improved understanding of the patterns of genetic variation, and high-throughput genotyping technologies, we now have the ability to move away from candidate gene based association studies. The risk of looking for candidate genes among pathways we already know is that we may miss key genes because of ignorance of the other biologic systems involved . Approximately 10% of the 30,000 human genes are immune response genes, and thus the likelihood of any single gene being associated with infectious disease is low . We now have the tools to use a broader, less biased approach to genetic association studies, and this may allow us finally to tease out the contributions made by genetic variants to susceptibility and response to infectious disease.
Moving forward with genetic association studies in sepsis
Several technologies (Affymetrix and Illumina) have been developed during the past few years that allow thousands of SNPs to be genotyped rapidly and accurately using small amounts of DNA. As the speed and throughput of genotyping polymorphisms has increased, costs have decreased significantly. It is now feasible for researchers to genotype thousands of SNPs in thousands of patients at moderate cost. Concurrently, groups such as the International HapMap Project  and Perlegen Sciences  have provided high-resolution maps that allow researchers to select SNPs that are correlated with adjacent polymorphisms and can act as markers, or tag SNPs, for other unmeasured SNPs. Sets of thousands of common SNPs can now be selected so that they tag the most common variants in a population. These SNPs can then be genotyped at low cost in thousands of patient samples using new high-throughput genotyping platforms. These technologies and resources make new strategies for genetic association studies, such as genome-wide association, practical, and they allow researchers to take an unbiased approach to association studies independent from selection of candidate genes.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), like linkage analyses, do not require a prior hypothesis of candidate genes to test for association with disease. In GWAS, as in genetic association studies, allele frequencies are compared between cases and controls. In GWAS, however, it is not allele frequencies in individual candidate genes that are compared, but rather allele frequencies in an unbiased selection of SNPs across the whole genome. Thus, assumptions about important genes and pathways in disease are avoided and novel insights into biology are possible. That is, whereas candidate gene studies test only for variants within genes of known relevance, GWAS make it possible to gain further insight into the pathophysiology of sepsis. Novel genes that have significant impact on outcome from sepsis would implicate the gene pathways involved in sepsis.
Now that it is economically feasible to genotype hundreds of thousands of SNPs in thousands of patients, and HapMap has made available intermediate allele frequency polymorphisms that are informative for association studies , whole-genome association studies for complex disease are possible and have been conducted in a number of diseases. The first published example of a GWAS in complex disease found that functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-α gene are associated with susceptibility and response to myocardial infarction (MI) . A total of 92,788 tag SNPs were genotyped in 94 individuals with MI and 653 control individuals to identify a locus on chromosome 6p21 that was associated with susceptibility and response to MI. Further linkage disequilibrium mapping and haplotype analysis allowed the researchers to narrow down the association to two SNPs in the lymphotoxin-α gene in 1,133 affected individuals versus 1,006 control individuals. Importantly, the researchers validated their GWAS findings with in vitro functional analysis to establish the biologic plausibility of their finding. GWAS has now been used to find disease-associated alleles in Crohn's disease , type 1 diabetes , type 2 diabetes  and age-related macular degeneration , and will be an important tool in identifying disease-associated alleles in infectious disease.
Genome-wide array of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms
An alternative to genotyping tag SNPs across the genome, as in GWAS, is to directly test association of large numbers of nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), or amino acid changing SNPs, to disease. There are now almost 60,000 documented SNPs that cause nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions . High-throughput genotyping technologies allow all of these nsSNPs to be genotyped simultaneously in thousands of patients. nsSNPs may cause functional changes in a protein that lead to increased susceptibility and response to disease. By screening all known nsSNPs in the human genome, and not just in candidate genes, researchers do not have to make assumptions about which genes or pathways may play a role in disease. However, this method, unlike genome-wide association, does require some knowledge of the structure of genes. Genome-wide scans of nsSNPs have identified polymorphisms associated with type 1 diabetes  and Crohn's disease .
Testing for differences in allelic expression
Recent studies have shown that polymorphic alleles may be differentially expressed within an individual and that this may contribute to phenotypic variation [90–94]. Classically, allele-specific differences in expression were attributed to phenomena such as genomic imprinting (methylation causing inactivation of one parental haplotype)  and X-chromosome inactivation . More recently it has been recognized that allele-specific expression is relatively common among non-imprinted autosomal genes [91, 93, 97–99] and that this difference in allelic expression is heritable . Common polymorphisms in autosomal genes may cause subtle quantitative changes in the expression of one allele of a gene that may make a minor contribution to a quantitative trait, or to the susceptibility and response to a disease. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns has been used to examine differences in global patterns of gene expression between healthy and diseased individuals [90, 100, 101]. Allele-specific differences in expression appear to be cell-type and stimulus dependent [90, 100, 101]. Differential allelic expression has been associated with susceptibility and response to colorectal cancer , schizophrenia , and obesity .
Nonsynonymous coding SNPs can be used to test heterozygote cell lines for differences in allelic expression [93, 103]. Within one cell, if there are no cis-acting regulatory elements affecting the expression of each allele, both alleles should be equally expressed . However, if an individual is heterozygous for a functional cis-acting regulatory polymorphism, then the two alleles will be differentially expressed . A nonsynonymous coding SNP within the transcript can be can be used as a tag to distinguish between transcripts derived from each allele . Allelic discrimination can then be used to measure relative allelic expression levels, with each allele serving as an internal control for the other. Allele-specific gene expression can be performed on a genome-wide scale using oligonucleotide arrays in order to find regulatory elements . Regulatory polymorphisms can then be mapped and tested for association with disease. Identifying regulatory SNPs or the haplotypes in which they lie may help us to understand how genetic variation influences susceptibility and response to disease.
Copy number polymorphisms
In addition to regulatory polymorphisms that cause allele-specific differences in expression, protein expression may be altered among individuals as a result of copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) [104, 105]. CNPs are alterations in genomic DNA that cause deletions or duplications of a gene in adjacent segments of DNA [104, 105]. Analogous to the definition of SNPs, the minor form of a CNP must occur in more than 1% of the population for this variation to be termed a CNP. The deletions or duplications result in varying copy numbers of genes among individuals and can cause measurable differences in protein expression. The differences in protein expression are not due to altered regulation of gene transcription, as in allele-specific differences in expression, but are a result of a decrease or increase in the number of copies of the gene in the genome . CNPs are likely to contribute to complex disease and quantitative traits. An example of a CNP that leads to human disease is the genomic duplication of the PMP22 gene, which causes the most common form of Charcot-Marie Tooth disease . CNPs are likely to have variable affects on phenotypes, depending on the sensitivity of the gene to dose, interactions with other loci, and the environment.
The availability of increasingly complex microarrays at decreasing cost has made it possible to perform genome-wide analysis of CNPs to quantify copy number differences. Affymetrix and Illumina offer combined SNP genotyping and copy number analysis, allowing researchers to perform genome-wide studies to detect associations of disease with either CNPs or SNPs. Genotyping of multibase, often multi-allelic CNPs is more challenging than genotyping di-allelic SNPs, however, and current data indicate that there is a low correlation between quantitative measures of CNPs and the true allelic state of each CNP in each individual . More accurate assays are needed for association studies using CNPs.
Use of genetic tests in patient care
Although a number of important genetic associations with outcome from sepsis have been discovered, further steps are required to apply these discoveries to patient care. First, risk for adverse outcome predicted by genotype is somewhat helpful, but prediction of response to therapy is clearly more useful for clinicians deciding on therapeutic approaches. Therefore, genetic association studies must expand measured end-points to include response to specific therapies. Second, predictive genetic associations must also consider specificity and sensitivity analyses to confirm that genotypic information contributes to predictions of response to therapy or outcome beyond what is possible using classical measures (age, severity of illness, and so on). Third, prospective testing of predictive genetic tests in large multicenter studies will be important to validate the treatment-modifying discoveries and to define the effectiveness (a step beyond efficacy) of decisions based on the predictive genetic test. These are substantial hurdles but they can be addressed, particularly by global collaborations, which we should all now embrace.
The age of genomic personalized medicine is within our reach. Previous genetic association studies in sepsis have had problems with reproducibility as a result of a number of issues, including small sample sizes, bias resulting from selection of candidate genes, the influence of multiple genes and environment on phenotype, epigenetics, and a lack of understanding of the patterns of variation in the human genome. We are beginning to develop the ability to deal with these issues as new, more economically feasible technologies allow us to genotype thousands of patients at hundreds of thousands of loci, and as we develop a better understanding of the complexity of patterns of variation in the human genome and the environment. Discoveries of novel genotype-phenotype associations in infectious disease may provide us with a clearer understanding of the pathways that are involved in susceptibility and response to infection, and they may one day allow us to treat patients with more specific treatments with fewer side effects.
copy number polymorphism
genome-wide association studies
nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism
single nucleotide polymorphism
Curns AT, Steiner CA, Sejvar JJ, Schonberger LB: Hospital charges attributable to a primary diagnosis of infectious diseases in older adults in the United States, 1998 to 2004. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008, 56: 969-975. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01712.x
Yorita KL, Holman RC, Sejvar JJ, Steiner CA, Schonberger LB: Infectious disease hospitalizations among infants in the United States. Pediatrics 2008, 121: 244-252. 10.1542/peds.2007-1392
Blot SI, Vandewoude KH, Hoste EA, Colardyn FA: Outcome and attributable mortality in critically Ill patients with bacteremia involving methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Arch Intern Med 2002, 162: 2229-2235. 10.1001/archinte.162.19.2229
Cosgrove SE, Carmeli Y: The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 2003, 36: 1433-1437. 10.1086/375081
Cosgrove SE, Sakoulas G, Perencevich EN, Schwaber MJ, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y: Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2003, 36: 53-59. 10.1086/345476
Shorr AF, Tabak YP, Gupta V, Johannes RS, Liu LZ, Kollef MH: Morbidity and cost burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in early onset ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care 2006, 10: R97. 10.1186/cc4946
Sakka V, Tsiodras S, Galani L, Antoniadou A, Souli M, Galani I, Pantelaki M, Siafakas N, Zerva L, Giamarellou H: Risk-factors and predictors of mortality in patients colonised with van-comycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Microbiol Infect 2008, 14: 14-21. 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01840.x
von Baum H, Ober JF, Wendt C, Wenzel RP, Edmond MB: Antibiotic-resistant bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients: specific risk factors in a high-risk population? Infection 2005, 33: 320-326. 10.1007/s15010-005-5066-4
Sorensen TI, Nielsen GG, Andersen PK, Teasdale TW: Genetic and environmental influences on premature death in adult adoptees. N Engl J Med 1988, 318: 727-732.
Burgner D, Levin M: Genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003, 22: 1-6. 10.1097/00006454-200301000-00002
Bellamy R, Hill AV: Genetic susceptibility to mycobacteria and ther infectious pathogens in humans. Curr Opin Immunol 1998, 10: 483-487. 10.1016/S0952-7915(98)80125-8
Choi EH, Zimmerman PA, Foster CB, Zhu S, Kumaraswami V, Nutman TB, Chanock SJ: Genetic polymorphisms in molecules of innate immunity and susceptibility to infection with Wuchereria bancrofti in South India. Genes Immun 2001, 2: 248-253. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363767
Risch N, Merikangas K: The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science 1996, 273: 1516-1517. 10.1126/science.273.5281.1516
Vink JM, Boomsma DI: Gene finding strategies. Biol Psychol 2002, 61: 53-71. 10.1016/S0301-0511(02)00052-2
Cirino G, Vergnolle N: Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): crossroads between innate immunity and coagulation. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2006, 6: 428-434. 10.1016/j.coph.2006.05.001
Kambas K, Markiewski MM, Pneumatikos IA, Rafail SS, Theodorou V, Konstantonis D, Kourtzelis I, Doumas MN, Magotti P, Deangelis RA, Lambris JD, Ritis KD: C5a and TNF-alpha up-regulate the expression of tissue factor in intra-alveolar neutrophils of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Immunol 2008, 180: 7368-7375.
Luyendyk JP, Schabbauer GA, Tencati M, Holscher T, Pawlinski R, Mackman N: Genetic analysis of the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and tissue factor gene expression in monocytes/macrophages. J Immunol 2008, 180: 4218-4226.
Shimaoka M, Park EJ: Advances in understanding sepsis. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 2008, 42: 146-153. 10.1017/S0265021507003389
International HapMap Project[http://www.hapmap.org/]
Mira JP, Cariou A, Grall F, Delclaux C, Losser MR, Heshmati F, Cheval C, Monchi M, Teboul JL, Riché F, Leleu G, Arbibe L, Mignon A, Delpech M, Dhainaut JF: Association of TNF2, a TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism, with septic shock susceptibility and mortality: a multicenter study. JAMA 1999, 282: 561-568. 10.1001/jama.282.6.561
McGuire W, Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D: Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. Nature 1994, 371: 508-510. 10.1038/371508a0
Nadel S, Newport MJ, Booy R, Levin M: Variation in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter region may be associated with death from meningococcal disease. J Infect Dis 1996, 174: 878-880.
Stuber F, Udalova IA, Book M, Drutskaya LN, Kuprash DV, Turetskaya RL, Schade FU, Nedospasov SA: -308 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) polymorphism is not associated with survival in severe sepsis and is unrelated to lipopolysaccharide inducibility of the human TNF promoter. J Inflamm 1995, 46: 42-50.
Gordon AC, Lagan AL, Aganna E, Cheung L, Peters CJ, McDermott MF, Millo JL, Welsh KI, Holloway P, Hitman GA, Piper RD, Garrard CS, Hinds CJ: TNF and TNFR polymorphisms in severe sepsis and septic shock: a prospective multicentre study. Genes Immun 2004, 5: 631-640. 10.1038/sj.gene.6364136
Fishman D, Faulds G, Jeffery R, Mohamed-Ali V, Yudkin JS, Humphries S, Woo P: The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on IL-6 transcription and plasma IL-6 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis. J Clin Invest 1998, 102: 1369-1376. 10.1172/JCI2629
Gaudino M, Andreotti F, Zamparelli R, Di Castelnuovo A, Nasso G, Burzotta F, Iacoviello L, Donati MB, Schiavello R, Maseri A, Possati G: The -174G/C interleukin-6 polymorphism influences postoperative interleukin-6 levels and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory complication? Circulation 2003,108(suppl 1):II195-199.
RothIsigkeit A, Hasselbach L, Ocklitz E, Bruckner S, Ros A, Gehring H, Schmucker P, Rink L, Seyfarth M: Inter-individual differences in cytokine release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin Exp Immunol 2001, 125: 80-88. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.2001.01521.x
Schluter B, Raufhake C, Erren M, Schotte H, Kipp F, Rust S, Van AH, Assmann G, Berendes E: Effect of the interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C) on the incidence and outcome of sepsis. Crit Care Med 2002, 30: 32-37. 10.1097/00003246-200201000-00005
Sutherland AM, Walley KR, Manocha S, Russell JA: The association of interleukin 6 haplotype clades with mortality in critically ill adults. Arch Intern Med 2005, 165: 75-82. 10.1001/archinte.165.1.75
Labeta MO, Durieux JJ, Fernandez N, Herrmann R, Ferrara P: Release from a human monocyte-like cell line of two different soluble forms of the lipopolysaccharide receptor, CD14. Eur J Immunol 1993, 23: 2144-2151. 10.1002/eji.1830230915
Wright SD, Ramos RA, Tobias PS, Ulevitch RJ, Mathison JC: CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Science 1990, 249: 1431-1433. 10.1126/science.1698311
Chow JC, Young DW, Golenbock DT, Christ WJ, Gusovsky F: Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction. J Biol Chem 1999, 274: 10689-10692. 10.1074/jbc.274.16.10689
Brightbill HD, Libraty DH, Krutzik SR, Yang RB, Belisle JT, Bleharski JR, Maitland M, Norgard MV, Plevy SE, Smale ST, Brennan PJ, Bloom BR, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL: Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science 1999, 285: 732-736. 10.1126/science.285.5428.732
Gibot S, Cariou A, Drouet L, Rossignol M, Ripoll L: Association between a genomic polymorphism within the CD14 locus and septic shock susceptibility and mortality rate. Crit Care Med 2002, 30: 969-973. 10.1097/00003246-200205000-00003
Heesen M, Bloemeke B, Schade U, Obertacke U, Majetschak M: The -260 C-->T promoter polymorphism of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 and severe sepsis in trauma patients. Intensive Care Med 2002, 28: 1161-1163. 10.1007/s00134-002-1389-0
Agnese DM, Calvano JE, Hahm SJ, Coyle SM, Corbett SA, Calvano SE, Lowry SF: Human toll-like receptor 4 mutations but not CD14 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gram-negative infections. J Infect Dis 2002, 186: 1522-1525. 10.1086/344893
Barber RC, Chang LY, Arnoldo BD, Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Horton JW, Aragaki CC: Innate immunity SNPs are associated with risk for severe sepsis after burn injury. Clin Med Res 2006, 4: 250-255. 10.3121/cmr.4.4.250
D'Avila LC, Albarus MH, Franco CR, Aguiar BB, Oliveira JR, Dias FS, Alho CS: Effect of CD14 -260C>T polymorphism on the mortality of critically ill patients. Immunol Cell Biol 2006, 84: 342-348. 10.1111/j.1440-1711.2006.01432.x
Nakada TA, Hirasawa H, Oda S, Shiga H, Matsuda K, Nakamura M, Watanabe E, Abe R, Hatano M, Tokuhisa T: Influence of toll-like receptor 4, CD14, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukine-10 gene polymorphisms on clinical outcome in Japanese critically ill patients. J Surg Res 2005, 129: 322-328. 10.1016/j.jss.2005.05.020
Zhang DL, Zheng HM, Yu BJ, Jiang ZW, Li JS: Association of polymorphisms of IL and CD14 genes with acute severe pancreatitis and septic shock. World J Gastroenterol 2005, 11: 4409-4413.
Hubacek JA, Rothe G, Pit'ha J, Skodova Z, Stanek V, Poledne R, Schmitz G: C(-260)-->T polymorphism in the promoter of the CD14 monocyte receptor gene as a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Circulation 1999, 99: 3218-3220.
Morath S, Stadelmaier A, Geyer A, Schmidt RR, Hartung T: Synthetic lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus is a potent stimulus of cytokine release. J Exp Med 2002, 195: 1635-1640. 10.1084/jem.20020322
Lotz S, Aga E, Wilde I, van Zandbergen G, Hartung T, Solbach W, Laskay T: Highly purified lipoteichoic acid activates neutrophil granulocytes and delays their spontaneous apoptosis via CD14 and TLR2. J Leukoc Biol 2004, 75: 467-477. 10.1189/jlb.0803360
Ellingsen E, Morath S, Flo T, Schromm A, Hartung T, Thiemermann C, Espevik T, Golenbock D, Foster D, Solberg R, Aasen A, Wang J: Induction of cytokine production in human T cells and monocytes by highly purified lipoteichoic acid: involvement of Toll-like receptors and CD14. Med Sci Monit 2002, 8: BR149-156.
Bochud PY, Hawn TR, Aderem A: Cutting edge: a Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphism that is associated with lepromatous leprosy is unable to mediate mycobacterial signaling. J Immunol 2003, 170: 3451-3454.
Kang TJ, Lee SB, Chae GT: A polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 is associated with IL-12 production from monocyte in lepromatous leprosy. Cytokine 2002, 20: 56-62. 10.1006/cyto.2002.1982
Lorenz E, Mira JP, Cornish KL, Arbour NC, Schwartz DA: A novel polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 gene and its potential association with staphylococcal infection. Infect Immun 2000, 68: 6398-6401. 10.1128/IAI.68.11.6398-6401.2000
Sutherland AM, Walley KR, Russell JA: Polymorphisms in CD14, mannose-binding lectin, and Toll-like receptor-2 are associated with increased prevalence of infection in critically ill adults. Crit Care Med 2005, 33: 638-644. 10.1097/01.CCM.0000156242.44356.C5
Moore CE, Segal S, Berendt AR, Hill AV, Day NP: Lack of association between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus . Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2004, 11: 1194-1197.
A haplotype map of the human genome Nature 2005, 437: 1299-1320. 10.1038/nature04226
Cavalli-Sforza LL: The Human Genome Diversity Project: past, present and future. Nat Rev Genet 2005, 6: 333-340.
Akey JM, Eberle MA, Rieder MJ, Carlson CS, Shriver MD, Nickerson DA, Kruglyak L: Population history and natural selection shape patterns of genetic variation in 132 genes. PLoS Biol 2004, 2: e286. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020286
Crawford DC, Akey DT, Nickerson DA: The patterns of natural variation in human genes. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2005, 6: 287-312. 10.1146/annurev.genom.6.080604.162309
Walley KR, Russell JA: Protein C -1641 AA is associated with decreased survival and more organ dysfunction in severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 2007, 35: 12-17. 10.1097/01.CCM.0000249823.44726.4E
Spek CA, Koster T, Rosendaal FR, Bertina RM, Reitsma PH: Genotypic variation in the promoter region of the protein C gene is associated with plasma protein C levels and thrombotic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995, 15: 214-218.
Chen QX, Wu SJ, Wang HH, Lv C, Cheng BL, Xie GH, Fang XM: Protein C -1641A/-1654C haplotype is associated with organ dysfunction and the fatal outcome of severe sepsis in Chinese Han population. Hum Genet 2008, 123: 281-287. 10.1007/s00439-008-0476-x
Russell JA, Wellman H, Walley KR: Protein C rs2069912 C allele is associated with increased mortality from severe sepsis in North Americans of East Asian ancestry. Hum Genet 2008, 123: 661-663. 10.1007/s00439-008-0509-5
Flores C, Ma SF, Maresso K, Wade MS, Villar J, Garcia JG: IL6 gene-wide haplotype is associated with susceptibility to acute lung injury. Transl Res 2008, 152: 11-17. 10.1016/j.trsl.2008.05.006
Sainz J, Perez E, Gomez-Lopera S, Lopez-Fernandez E, Moratalla L, Oyonarte S, Jurado M: Genetic variants of IL6 gene promoter influence on C-reactive protein levels but are not associated with susceptibility to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in haematological patients. Cytokine 2008, 41: 268-278. 10.1016/j.cyto.2007.11.018
Weis WI, Drickamer K: Trimeric structure of a C-type mannose-binding protein. Structure 1994, 2: 1227-1240. 10.1016/S0969-2126(94)00124-3
Lipscombe RJ, Sumiya M, Hill AV, Lau YL, Levinsky RJ, Summerfield JA, Turner MW: High frequencies in African and non-African populations of independent mutations in the mannose binding protein gene. Hum Mol Genet 1992, 1: 709-715. 10.1093/hmg/1.9.709
Madsen HO, Garred P, Kurtzhals JA, Lamm LU, Ryder LP, Thiel S, Svejgaard A: A new frequent allele is the missing link in the structural polymorphism of the human mannan-binding protein. Immunogenetics 1994, 40: 37-44. 10.1007/BF00163962
Sumiya M, Super M, Tabona P, Levinsky RJ, Arai T, Turner MW, Summerfield JA: Molecular basis of opsonic defect in immunodeficient children. Lancet 1991, 337: 1569-1570. 10.1016/0140-6736(91)93263-9
Madsen HO, Garred P, Thiel S, Kurtzhals JA, Lamm LU, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A: Interplay between promoter and structural gene variants control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein. J Immunol 1995, 155: 3013-3020.
Steffensen R, Thiel S, Varming K, Jersild C, Jensenius JC: Detection of structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) gene by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. J Immunol Methods 2000, 241: 33-42. 10.1016/S0022-1759(00)00198-8
Crosdale DJ, Ollier WE, Thomson W, Dyer PA, Jensenious J, Johnson RW, Poulton KV: Mannose binding lectin (MBL) genotype distributions with relation to serum levels in UK Caucasoids. Eur J Immunogenet 2000, 27: 111-117. 10.1046/j.1365-2370.2000.00211.x
Garred P, J JS, Quist L, Taaning E, Madsen HO: Association of mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms with sepsis and fatal outcome, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Infect Dis 2003, 188: 1394-1403. 10.1086/379044
Gordon AC, Waheed U, Hansen TK, Hitman GA, Garrard CS, Turner MW, Klein NJ, Brett SJ, Hinds CJ: Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms in severe sepsis: relationship to levels, incidence, and outcome. Shock 2006, 25: 88-93. 10.1097/01.shk.0000186928.57109.8d
Wallis R, Cheng JY: Molecular defects in variant forms of mannose-binding protein associated with immunodeficiency. J Immunol 1999, 163: 4953-4959.
Crosdale DJ, Poulton KV, Ollier WE, Thomson W, Denning DW: Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms as a susceptibility factor for chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. J Infect Dis 2001, 184: 653-656. 10.1086/322791
Garred P, Madsen HO, Halberg P, Petersen J, Kronborg G, Svejgaard A, Andersen V, Jacobsen S: Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms and susceptibility to infection in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1999, 42: 2145-2152. 10.1002/1529-0131(199910)42:10<2145::AID-ANR15>3.0.CO;2-#
Garred P, Pressler T, Madsen HO, Frederiksen B, Svejgaard A, Hoiby N, Schwartz M, Koch C: Association of mannose-binding lectin gene heterogeneity with severity of lung disease and survival in cystic fibrosis. J Clin Invest 1999, 104: 431-437. 10.1172/JCI6861
Garred P, Voss A, Madsen HO, Junker P: Association of mannose-binding lectin gene variation with disease severity and infections in a population-based cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Genes Immun 2001, 2: 442-450. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363804
Matsushita M, Miyakawa H, Tanaka A, Hijikata M, Kikuchi K, Fujikawa H, Arai J, Sainokami S, Hino K, Terai I, Mishiro S, Gershwin ME: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin are associated with susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis. J Autoimmun 2001, 17: 251-257. 10.1006/jaut.2001.0538
Rector A, Lemey P, Laffut W, Keyaerts E, Struyf F, Wollants E, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Van Ranst M: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) gene polymorphisms in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Genes Immun 2001, 2: 323-328. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363784
Emonts M, Uitterlinden AG, Nouwen JL, Kardys I, Maat MP, Melles DC, Witteman J, Jong PT, Verbrugh HA, Hofman A, Hermans PW, Belkum A: Host polymorphisms in interleukin 4, complement factor H, and C-reactive protein associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and occurrence of boils. J Infect Dis 2008, 197: 1244-1253. 10.1086/533501
Manocha S, Russell JA, Sutherland AM, Wattanathum A, Walley KR: Fibrinogen-beta gene haplotype is associated with mortality in sepsis. J Infect 2007, 54: 572-577. 10.1016/j.jinf.2006.10.001
Wattanathum A, Manocha S, Groshaus H, Russell JA, Walley KR: Interleukin-10 haplotype associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis from pneumonia but not in patients with extrapulmonary sepsis. Chest 2005, 128: 1690-1698. 10.1378/chest.128.3.1690
Tremelling M, Parkes M: Genome-wide association scans identify multiple confirmed susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease: lessons for study design. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007, 13: 1554-1560. 10.1002/ibd.20239
Hinds DA, Stuve LL, Nilsen GB, Halperin E, Eskin E, Ballinger DG, Frazer KA, Cox DR: Whole-genome patterns of common DNA variation in three human populations. Science 2005, 307: 1072-1079. 10.1126/science.1105436
Ozaki K, Ohnishi Y, Iida A, Sekine A, Yamada R, Tsunoda T, Sato H, Sato H, Hori M, Nakamura Y, Tanaka T: Functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene that are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Nat Genet 2002, 32: 650-654. 10.1038/ng1047
Parkes M, Barrett JC, Prescott NJ, Tremelling M, Anderson CA, Fisher SA, Roberts RG, Nimmo ER, Cummings FR, Soars D, Drummond H, Lees CW, Khawaja SA, Bagnall R, Burke DA, Todhunter CE, Ahmad T, Onnie CM, McArdle W, Strachan D, Bethel G, Bryan C, Lewis CM, Deloukas P, Forbes A, Sanderson J, Jewell DP, Satsangi J, Mansfield JC, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, et al.: Sequence variants in the autophagy gene IRGM and multiple other replicating loci contribute to Crohn's disease susceptibility. Nat Genet 2007, 39: 830-832. 10.1038/ng2061
Todd JA, Walker NM, Cooper JD, Smyth DJ, Downes K, Plagnol V, Bailey R, Nejentsev S, Field SF, Payne F, Lowe CE, Szeszko JS, Hafler JP, Zeitels L, Yang JH, Vella A, Nutland S, Stevens HE, Schuilenburg H, Coleman G, Maisuria M, Meadows W, Smink LJ, Healy B, Burren OS, Lam AA, Ovington NR, Allen J, Adlem E, Leung HT, et al.: Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet 2007, 39: 857-864. 10.1038/ng2068
Zeggini E, Weedon MN, Lindgren CM, Frayling TM, Elliott KS, Lango H, Timpson NJ, Perry JR, Rayner NW, Freathy RM, Barrett JC, Shields B, Morris AP, Ellard S, Groves CJ, Harries LW, Marchini JL, Owen KR, Knight B, Cardon LR, Walker M, Hitman GA, Morris AD, Doney AS, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), McCarthy MI, Hattersley AT: Replication of genome-wide association signals in UK samples reveals risk loci for type 2 diabetes. Science 2007, 316: 1336-1341. 10.1126/science.1142364
Klein RJ, Zeiss C, Chew EY, Tsai JY, Sackler RS, Haynes C, Henning AK, SanGiovanni JP, Mane SM, Mayne ST, Bracken MB, Ferris FL, Ott J, Barnstable C, Hoh J: Complement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration. Science 2005, 308: 385-389. 10.1126/science.1109557
Beaudet AL, Belmont JW: Array-based DNA diagnostics: let the revolution begin. Annu Rev Med 2008, 59: 113-129. 10.1146/annurev.med.59.012907.101800
Smyth DJ, Cooper JD, Bailey R, Field S, Burren O, Smink LJ, Guja C, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Widmer B, Dunger DB, Savage DA, Walker NM, Clayton DG, Todd JA: A genome-wide association study of nonsynonymous SNPs identifies a type 1 diabetes locus in the interferon-induced helicase (IFIH1) region. Nat Genet 2006, 38: 617-619. 10.1038/ng1800
Hampe J, Franke A, Rosenstiel P, Till A, Teuber M, Huse K, Albrecht M, Mayr G, De La Vega FM, Briggs J, Günther S, Prescott NJ, Onnie CM, Häsler R, Sipos B, Fölsch UR, Lengauer T, Platzer M, Mathew CG, Krawczak M, Schreiber S: A genome-wide association scan of nonsynonymous SNPs identifies a susceptibility variant for Crohn disease in ATG16L1. Nat Genet 2007, 39: 207-211. 10.1038/ng1954
DeRisi J, Penland L, Brown PO, Bittner ML, Meltzer PS, Ray M, Chen Y, Su YA, Trent JM: Use of a cDNA microarray to analyse gene expression patterns in human cancer. Nat Genet 1996, 14: 457-460. 10.1038/ng1296-457
Lo HS, Wang Z, Hu Y, Yang HH, Gere S, Buetow KH, Lee MP: Allelic variation in gene expression is common in the human genome. Genome Res 2003, 13: 1855-1862. 10.1101/gr.885403
Yan H, Dobbie Z, Gruber SB, Markowitz S, Romans K, Giardiello FM, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: Small changes in expression affect predisposition to tumorigenesis. Nat Genet 2002, 30: 25-26. 10.1038/ng799
Yan H, Yuan W, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW: Allelic variation in human gene expression. Science 2002, 297: 1143. 10.1126/science.1072545
Yang WS, Tsou PL, Lee WJ, Tseng DL, Chen CL, Peng CC, Lee KC, Chen MJ, Huang CJ, Tai TY, Chuang LM: Allele-specific differential expression of a common adiponectin gene polymorphism related to obesity. J Mol Med 2003, 81: 428-434. 10.1007/s00109-002-0409-4
Sakatani T, Wei M, Katoh M, Okita C, Wada D, Mitsuya K, Meguro M, Ikeguchi M, Ito H, Tycko B, Oshimura M: Epigenetic heterogeneity at imprinted loci in normal populations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001, 283: 1124-1130. 10.1006/bbrc.2001.4916
Carrel L, Willard HF: X-inactivation profile reveals extensive variability in X-linked gene expression in females. Nature 2005, 434: 400-404. 10.1038/nature03479
Cowles CR, Hirschhorn JN, Altshuler D, Lander ES: Detection of regulatory variation in mouse genes. Nat Genet 2002, 32: 432-437. 10.1038/ng992
Hamilton BA: Variations in abundance: genome-wide responses to genetic variation and vice versa. Genome Biol 2002, 3: reviews1029. 10.1186/gb-2002-3-10-reviews1029
Knight JC: Functional implications of genetic variation in non-coding DNA for disease susceptibility and gene regulation. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003, 104: 493-501.
Kerr MK, Martin M, Churchill GA: Analysis of variance for gene expression microarray data. J Comput Biol 2000, 7: 819-837. 10.1089/10665270050514954
Velculescu VE, Zhang L, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW: Serial analysis of gene expression. Science 1995, 270: 484-487. 10.1126/science.270.5235.484
Bray NJ, Buckland PR, Williams NM, Williams HJ, Norton N, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC: A haplotype implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility is associated with reduced COMT expression in human brain. Am J Hum Genet 2003, 73: 152-161. 10.1086/376578
Singer-Sam J, LeBon JM, Dai A, Riggs AD: A sensitive, quantitative assay for measurement of allele-specific transcripts differing by a single nucleotide. PCR Methods Appl 1992, 1: 160-163.
Inoue K, Lupski JR: Molecular mechanisms for genomic disorders. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2002, 3: 199-242. 10.1146/annurev.genom.3.032802.120023
Lee JA, Lupski JR: Genomic rearrangements and gene copy-number alterations as a cause of nervous system disorders. Neuron 2006, 52: 103-121. 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.09.027
Lupski JR, de Oca-Luna RM, Slaugenhaupt S, Pentao L, Guzzetta V, Trask BJ, Saucedo-Cardenas O, Barker DF, Killian JM, Garcia CA, Chakravarti A, Patel PI: DNA duplication associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Cell 1991, 66: 219-232. 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90613-4
Pe'er I, de Bakker PI, Maller J, Yelensky R, Altshuler D, Daly MJ: Evaluating and improving power in whole-genome association studies using fixed marker sets. Nat Genet 2006, 38: 663-667. 10.1038/ng1816
Baldini M, Lohman IC, Halonen M, Erickson RP, Holt PG, Martinez FD: A Polymorphism* in the 5' flanking region of the CD14 gene is associated with circulating soluble CD14 levels and with total serum immunoglobulin E. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1999, 20: 976-983.
Hubacek JA, Stuber F, Frohlich D, Book M, Wetegrove S, Rothe G, Schmitz G: The common functional C(-159)T polymorphism within the promoter region of the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 is not associated with sepsis development or mortality. Genes Immun 2000, 1: 405-407. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363691
LeVan TD, Bloom JW, Bailey TJ, Karp CL, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Vercelli D: A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD14 promoter decreases the affinity of Sp protein binding and enhances transcriptional activity. J Immunol 2001, 167: 5838-5844.
Heesen M, Blomeke B, Schluter B, Heussen N, Rossaint R, Kunz D: Lack of association between the -260 C-->T promoter polymorphism of the endotoxin receptor CD14 gene and the CD14 density of unstimulated human monocytes and soluble CD14 plasma levels. Intensive Care Med 2001, 27: 1770-1775. 10.1007/s001340101106
Temple SE, Cheong KY, Almeida CM, Price P, Waterer GW: Polymorphisms in lymphotoxin alpha and CD14 genes influence TNFalpha production induced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Genes Immun 2003, 4: 283-288. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363963
Eng HL, Chen CH, Kuo CC, Wu JS, Wang CH, Lin TM: Association of CD14 promoter gene polymorphism and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. J Infect Dis 2003, 188: 90-97. 10.1086/375744
Ahrens P, Kattner E, Kohler B, Hartel C, Seidenberg J, Segerer H, Moller J, Gopel W: Mutations of genes involved in the innate immune system as predictors of sepsis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res 2004, 55: 652-656. 10.1203/01.PDR.0000112100.61253.85
Pacheco E, Fonseca C, Montes C, Zabaleta J, Garcia LF, Arias MA: CD14 gene promoter polymorphism in different clinical forms of tuberculosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2004, 40: 207-213. 10.1016/S0928-8244(03)00369-9
Eng HL, Wang CH, Chen CH, Chou MH, Cheng CT, Lin TM: A CD14 promoter polymorphism is associated with CD14 expression and Chlamydia -stimulated TNF alpha production. Genes Immun 2004, 5: 426-430. 10.1038/sj.gene.6364100
Rupp J, Goepel W, Kramme E, Jahn J, Solbach W, Maass M: CD14 promoter polymorphism -159C>T is associated with susceptibility to chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in peripheral blood monocytes. Genes Immun 2004, 5: 435-438. 10.1038/sj.gene.6364112
Rahman SH, Salter G, Holmfield JH, Larvin M, McMahon MJ: Soluble CD14 receptor expression and monocyte heterogeneity but not the C-260T CD14 genotype are associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Crit Care Med 2004, 32: 2457-2463. 10.1097/01.CCM.0000148008.99716.9C
Balog A, Gyulai Z, Boros LG, Farkas G, Takacs T, Lonovics J, Mandi Y: Polymorphism of the TNF-alpha, HSP70-2, and CD14 genes increases susceptibility to severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas 2005, 30: e46-e50. 10.1097/01.mpa.0000153329.92686.ac
von Aulock S, Rupp J, Gueinzius K, Maass M, Hermann C: Critical investigation of the CD14 promoter polymorphism: lack of a role for in vitro cytokine response and membrane CD14 expression. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005, 12: 1254-1256.
Hartel C, Rupp J, Hoegemann A, Bohler A, Spiegler J, von Otte S, Roder K, Schultz C, Gopel W: 159C>T CD14 genotype: functional effects on innate immune responses in term neonates. Hum Immunol 2008, 69: 338-343. 10.1016/j.humimm.2008.04.011
Yuan FF, Marks K, Wong M, Watson S, de Leon E, McIntyre PB, Sullivan JS: Clinical relevance of TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and FcgammaRIIA gene polymorphisms in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Immunol Cell Biol 2008, 86: 268-270. 10.1038/sj.icb.7100155
National Center for Biotechnology Information[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/]
KRW is a Distinguished Scholar of the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research. Supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of BC and Yukon.
The authors declare that they hold shares in Sirius Genomics Inc.
Authors’ original submitted files for images
Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images.
About this article
Cite this article
Sutherland, A.M., Walley, K.R. Bench-to-bedside review: Association of genetic variation with sepsis. Crit Care 13, 210 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc7702