Renal failure in the intensive care unit: acute kidney injury compared to end-stage renal failure
Critical Care volume 12, Article number: 432 (2008)
Patients with advanced acute kidney injury (AKI) and end-stage dialysis dependent renal failure (ESRF) are characterized by loss of renal function as well as significant associated co-morbidities. However, prognosis appears to differ when they are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with advanced AKI have a reported ICU mortality between 25% and 90%, depending on the specific patient population and the definition of AKI [1, 2], whereas ICU mortality in ESRF patients has been reported to be 9% to 26% [3–5]. In contrast, Uchino and coworkers  found no difference in outcome between 32 ESRF patients in an ICU and 32 diagnosis and severity score matched patients with AKI treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT).
We retrospectively analyzed the Riyadh Intensive Care Program database of 41,972 adult patients admitted to ICUs in 19 hospitals in the UK and three hospitals in Germany between 1989 to 1999, and we compared ESRF patients and patients with advanced AKI (defined by serum creatinine ≥ 354 μmol/l, treatment with RRT or a rise in serum creatinine by >300% from baseline). A total of 797 patients had pre-existing ESRF and 2,782 patients had advanced AKI, of whom 66.4% were treated with RRT. ESRF patients had a significantly lower ICU and hospital mortality and shorter stay in ICU compared with patients with advanced AKI (Table 1). In both groups the ICU mortality rate rose with increasing number of associated failed organ systems (Figure 1). However, patients with AKI had significantly more associated organ failures during their stay in the ICU; 75.4% of patients with AKI on RRT and 54.5% of patients with advanced AKI not on RRT had two or more other failed organ systems, in contrast to only 25.6% of ESRF patients. In addition, significantly more patients with AKI on RRT needed mechanical ventilation compared with ESRF patients (91.3% versus 60.9%, P < 0.0001).
In a multivariate analysis, mechanical ventilation (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3), maximum number of failed organs (OR = 2.93) and nonsurgical admission (OR = 2.1) were the strongest independent risk factors for ICU mortality, followed by emergency surgery (OR = 1.75), pre-existing chronic disease (OR = 1.2), SOFA score on admission to ICU (OR = 1.05) and age (OR = 1.03).
Our study confirms that patients with ESRF admitted to ICU had a significantly better prognosis than did ICU patients with advanced AKI. The main reasons were due to differences in co-morbid risk factors, in particular need for mechanical ventilation and associated organ failure while in the ICU.
Mehta RL, Pascual MT, Soroko S, Savage BR, Himmelfarb J, Ikizler A, Paganini EP, Chertow GM, for the Program of Improve Care in Acute Renal Disease: Spectrum of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit: the PICARD experience. Kidney Int 2004, 66: 1613-1621. 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00927.x
Uchino S, Kellum JA, Bellomo R, Doig GS, Morimatsu H, Morgera S, Schetz M, Tan I, Bouman C, Macedo E, Gibney N, Tolwani A, Ronco C, for the Beginning and Ending Supportive Therapy for the Kidney (BEST Kidney) Investigators: Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study. JAMA 2005, 294: 813-818. 10.1001/jama.294.7.813
Hutchison CA, Crowe AV, Stevens PE, Harrison DA, Lipkin GW: Case mix, outcome and activity for patients admitted to intensive care units requiring chronic renal dialysis: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database. Crit Care 2007, 11: R50. 10.1186/cc5785
Dara SI, Afessa B, Bajwa AA, Albright RC: Outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease admitted to the intensive care unit. Mayo Clin Proc 2004, 79: 1385-1390.
Uchino S, Morimatsu H, Bellomo R, Silvester W, Cole L: End-stage renal failure patients requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: incidence, clinical features, and outcome. Blood Purif 2003, 21: 170-175. 10.1159/000069156
We wish to thank the Riyadh ICU Program Users Group for access to the data used in this study.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Mr R Chang is in charge of the Riyadh Intensive Care Program database. Both authors extracted the data from the database and performed the analyses. Dr Ostermann wrote the draft and Mr Chang provided critiques. Both authors approved the final manuscript.
Authors’ original submitted files for images
Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images.
About this article
Cite this article
Ostermann, M., Chang, R. & the Riyadh ICU Program Users Group. Renal failure in the intensive care unit: acute kidney injury compared to end-stage renal failure. Crit Care 12, 432 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc7085
- Intensive Care Unit
- Mechanical Ventilation
- Renal Replacement Therapy
- Acute Kidney Injury
- Intensive Care Unit Patient