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Hemodynamic and metabolic features of a porcine systemic low flow state model

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To describe a new experimental systemic low flow state model induced by cardiac tamponade.


Ten Large White pigs (43 ± 5 kg) were instrumented with arterial and pulmonary catheters, cystostomy and splenectomy, and a latex balloon was inserted anterior to the heart. Pigs were randomized to a shock group or a control group. The shock group had the balloon inflated with 620 ± 344 ml to keep the mean arterial blood pressure at 45–55 mmHg (mean = 49 ± 4 mmHg) for 1 hour. Hemodynamic data were collected and shown as the mean ± SD. Two-way ANOVA was used with Bonferroni's correction.


During shock, the SvO2 was 34 ± 8%, the heart rate was 173 ± 36 bpm, and the stroke volume was 18 ± 12 ml/min/beat. After shock, see Table 1.

Table 1 Table 1


In our model, transient cardiac tamponade caused persistent hypotension and cardiovascular dysfunction. Hyperthermia was an interesting finding in the last hours of the experiment in animals submitted to cardiac tamponade.

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Azevedo, L., Maciel, A., Noritomi, D. et al. Hemodynamic and metabolic features of a porcine systemic low flow state model. Crit Care 11, P6 (2007) doi:10.1186/cc5793

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  • Blood Pressure
  • Heart Rate
  • Catheter
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Stroke Volume