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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Viral RNA load in plasma is associated with critical illness and a dysregulated host response in COVID-19

  Outpatients (1) Ward (2) ICU (3) p value
(1 vs. 2)
p value
(1 vs. 3)
p value
(2 vs. 3)
Characteristics Age [years, median (IQR)] 48.50 [19] 64 [20] 66 [19]  < 0.001  < 0.001 n.s
  Male [%, (n)] 46 (23) 50 (50) 64 (64) n.s 0.035 0.046
Comorbidities, [% (n)] Alcoholism 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) n.s n.s n.s
Smoking 4 (2) 5 (5) 6 (6) n.s n.s n.s
Drug abuse 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) n.s n.s n.a
Cardiac disease 4 (2) 13 (13) 9 (9) n.s n.s n.s
Chronic vascular disease 2 (1) 2 (2) 5 (5) n.s n.s n.s
COPD 2 (1) 2 (2) 3 (3) n.s n.s n.s
Asthma 8 (4) 6 (6) 2 (2) n.s n.s n.s
Obesity 4 (2) 26 (26) 26 (26) 0.001 0.001 n.s
Hypertension 24 (12) 44 (44) 45 (45) 0.017 0.012 n.s
Dyslipidemia 16 (8) 41 (41) 34 (34) 0.002 0.021 n.s
Chronic renal disease 2 (1) 3 (3) 3 (3) n.s n.s n.s
Chronic hepatic disease 2 (1) 0 (0) 3 (3) n.s n.s n.s
Neurological disease 0 (0) 6 (6) 3 (3) n.s n.s n.s
HIV 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1) n.a n.s n.s
Autoimmune disease 2 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) n.s n.s n.s
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease 0 (0) 2 (2) 1 (1) n.s n.s n.s
Type 1 diabetes 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (3) n.a n.s n.s
Type 2 diabetes 0 (0) 23 (23) 22 (22)  < 0.001  < 0.001 n.s
Cancer 6 (3) 2 (2) 1 (1) n.s n.s n.s
Treatment during hospitalization, [% (n)] Invasive mechanical ventilation 0 (0) 0 (0) 96 (96) n.a  < 0.001  < 0.001
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation 0 (0) 14 (14) 34 (34) 0.004  < 0.001 0.002
Hydroxychloroquine 77.6 (38) 89 (89) 99 (99) n.s  < 0.001 0.003
Chloroquine 4.1 (2) 7 (7) 0 (0) n.s 0.042 0.007
Corticoids 6.7 (3) 29 (29) 85 (85) 0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001
Azithromycin 15.9 (7) 84 (84) 84 (84)  < 0.001  < 0.001 n.s
Remdesivir 0 (0) 1 (1) 9 (9) n.s 0.029 0.009
Tocilizumab 0 (0) 13 (13) 33 (33) 0.008  < 0.001 0.001
Lopinavir/ritonavir 74 (37) 35 (35) 96 (96)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Beta Interferon 0 (0) 0 (0) 55 (55) n.a  < 0.001  < 0.001
Time course and outcome Hospital stay [days, median, (IQR)] 9 (6) 24 (19) n.a n.a  < 0.001
Viral RNAemia
[% (n)]
2 (1) 27 (27) 78 (78)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Viral RNA load in plasma (N1)
(copies / mL, median, (IQR))
0 (0) 0 (91) 829 (4444) n.s  < 0.001  < 0.001
Viral RNA load in plasma (N2)
(copies / mL, median, (IQR))
0 (0) 0 (93) 836 (4939) n.s  < 0.001  < 0.001
SARS-CoV-2 IgG, [% (n)] 52 (26) 49 (49) 70 (70) n.s 0.030 0.002
Hospital mortality, [% (n)] 0 (0) 0 (0) 49(49) n.a  < 0.001  < 0.001
Measurements at diagnosis Temperature (ºC) [median (IQR)] 36.50 (1.0) 36.80 (1.4) 37.00 (1.4)
Systolic pressure (mmHg)
[median (IQR)]
120 (29) 126 (25) 120 (26) n.s n.s 0.001
Oxygen saturation (%) [median (IQR)] 96 (3) 94 (5) 92 (6) 0.002  < 0.001 0.002
Pulmonary infiltrate [% (n)] 72 (36) 93 (93) 100 (100)  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.007
Bilateral pulmonary infiltrate [% (n)] 26 (13) 67 (67) 93 (93)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Glucose (mg/dl) [median (IQR)] 99.5 (22) 112 (31) 160.50 (83)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Creatinine (mg/dl) [median (IQR)] 0.84 (0.18) 0.91 (0.33) 0.88 (0.57)
Na (mEq/L) [median (IQR)] 138 (4) 138 (5) 138.50 (7)
K (mEq/L) [median (IQR)] 3.90 (0.50) 4.10 (0.68) 3.95 (0.90)
Platelets (cell × 10 3 / µl) [median (IQR)] 223 [97] 207 [113] 204 [126]
INR [median (IQR)] 1.04 (0.10) 1.11 (0.13) 1.22 (0.22) 0.004  < 0.001  < 0.001
D Dimer (pg/ml) [median (IQR)] 795,278
[828234]
1,597,362
[2024704]
6,182,104
[52690922]
 < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
LDH (UI/L) [median (IQR)] 214 (73) 278 (138) 496 (285) 0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001
GPT (UI/L) [median (IQR)] 27 (43) 29 (29) 44 (44.50) n.s 0.021 0.001
Ferritin (pg/ml) [median (IQR)] 359,507
[458748]
523,805
[534757]
923,687
[1526492]
n.s  < 0.001 0.002
CRP (mg/dl) [median (IQR)] 1.40 (3.50) 40.90 (89.18) 91 (182.10)  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.031
Haematocrit (%) [median (IQR)] 43.15 (4.72) 42.50 (6.50) 38.15 (6.48) n.s  < 0.001  < 0.001
WBC (cells/mm3) [median (IQR)] 6450 (2815) 7005 (4115) 9145 (6613) n.s  < 0.001 0.006
Lymphocytes (cells/mm3)
[median (IQR)]
1400 (805) 1000 (433) 540 (445) 0.006  < 0.001  < 0.001
Neutrophils (cells/mm3)
[median (IQR)]
4260 (2625) 5250 (3918) 8300 (5880) n.s  < 0.001  < 0.001
Monocytes (cells/mm3)
[median (IQR)]
500 (300) 400 (300) 300 (280) n.s  < 0.001  < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are represented as [median, (interquartile range, IQR)]; categorical variables are represented as [%, (n)].; INR, International Normalized Ratio; n.s., not significant; n.a., not applicable. COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), INR (International Normalized Ratio), LDH (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase), GPT (glutamic-pyruvate transaminase); CRP (C-reactive protein), WBC (white blood cell)