- Research Letter
- Open Access
Nafamostat mesylate treatment in combination with favipiravir for patients critically ill with Covid-19: a case series
Critical Care volume 24, Article number: 392 (2020)
Development of specific therapy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently required. Several drugs such as antimalarial and anti-Ebola virus drugs are under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a crucial role for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cytoplasm . Inhibition of TMPRSS2 protease activity is assumed to prohibit viral entry of SARS-CoV-2. Through high-throughput screening of 1017 existing drugs, a clinically available serine protease inhibitor nafamostat mesylate was identified as a potent inhibitor of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry into human epithelial cells . More recently, nafamostat mesylate was shown to inhibit the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the human epithelial cells at EC50 of ~ 10 nM [3, 4]. Nafamostat mesylate has been clinically used for the treatment of acute pancreatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in Japan. By intravenous administration, its blood concentrations are maintained at 30–240 nM, which are sufficient to block the virus entry . An anti-influenza A H1N1 virus drug favipiravir exhibits antiviral activity against other RNA viruses and therefore is expected to have antiviral action against SARS-CoV-2. This drug has been approved in Japan for novel influenza virus disease.
Eleven adults with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at The University of Tokyo Hospital between April 6 and April 21, 2020, and treated with nafamostat mesylate in combination with favipiravir. The demographic and clinical characteristics and the laboratory and radiologic findings at ICU admission are listed in Table 1. All the patients needed oxygen therapy. Eight patients (73%) needed invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), and 3 patients (27%) needed venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO).
Patients received combination treatment with nafamostat mesylate [0.2 mg per kg per hour by continuous intravenous infusion, median treatment 14 days (IQR, 10 to 14 days)] and favipiravir [3600 mg on day 1 and at 1600 mg per day on day 2 and subsequently median treatment 14 days (IQR, 12 to 14 days)]. No interruption of antiviral treatment occurred due to adverse drug reactions except for one patient who developed hyperkalemia on day 9 (by nafamostat mesylate). All 11 patients had at least 33 days of hospital follow-up. As of May 22, 1 patient, who had a do-not-resuscitate order, died on ICU day 7. Seven patients were successfully weaned from MV [median duration of MV 16 days (IQR, 10 to 19 days)] and 9 and 7 patients were discharged from the ICU and the hospital, respectively (Fig. 1).
This is the first report on nafamostat mesylate treatment in combination with favipiravir against Covid-19. In comparison with previous reports about critically ill patients with Covid-19, our case series also demonstrated a high number of patients (8 [73%]) who required MV requirement; however, the mortality rate was low (1 patient [9%]). Patients with severe Covid-19 often suffer from microvascular thrombosis and hemorrhage with extensive alveolar and interstitial inflammation in the lung . Nafamostat mesylate might thus be effective, because it inhibits intravascular coagulopathy, in addition to directly targeting the virus entry in host epithelial cells.
In conclusion, nafamostat mesylate therapy in combination with favipiravir may allow blockade of virus entry and replication, as well as inhibition of pathogenic host response, i.e., hyper-coagulopathy. Although the number of patients in this case series was very small, this low mortality rate suggests that combination treatment of favipiravir and nafamostat mesylate may be effective for critically ill Covid-19 patients. A clinical trial for the combination treatment of nafamostat mesylate and favipiravir against Covid-19 will be initiated in Japan (jRCTs031200026).
Availability of data and materials
Full de-identified data of the analyses are available upon request to the corresponding author.
Coronavirus disease 2019
Intensive care unit
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Transmembrane protease serine 2
Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, Herrler G, Wu NH, Nitsche A, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020;181(2):271–80 e278.
Yamamoto M, Matsuyama S, Li X, Takeda M, Kawaguchi Y, Inoue JI, Matsuda Z. Identification of nafamostat as a potent inhibitor of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus S protein-mediated membrane fusion using the split-protein-based cell-cell fusion assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60(11):6532–9.
Yamamoto M, Kiso M, Sakai-Tagawa Y, Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Imai M, Takeda M, Kinoshita N, Ohmagari N, Gohda J, Semba K, et al. The anticoagulant nafamostat potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro: an existing drug with multiple possible therapeutic effects. bioRxiv. 2020; 2020.04.22.054981.
Hoffmann M, Schroeder S, Kleine-Weber H, Müller MA, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. Nafamostat mesylate blocks activation of SARS-CoV-2: new treatment option for COVID-19. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00754-20.
McGonagle D, O’Donnell JS, Sharif K, Emery P, Bridgewood C. Immune mechanisms of pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy in COVID-19 pneumonia. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30121-1.
Collaborating author names from COVID-UTH Study Group, which will be searchable through their individual PubMed records:
Hiromu Maehara, M.D.1; Shunsuke Tagami, M.D.1; Kazutaka Fukushima, M.D.1; Naho Misawa, M.D.1; Yutaro Inoue, M.D.1; Hitomi Nakamura, M.D.1; Daisuke Takai, M.D.1; Mio Kurimoto, M.D.1; Kurato Tokunaga, M.D.1; Miyuki Yamamoto, M.D.1; Ichiro Hirayama, M.D.1; Ryohei Horie, M.D.1; Yuri Endo, M.D.1; Kengo Hiwatashi, M.D.1; Mio Shikama, M.D.1; Daisuke Jubishi, M.D., Ph.D.3; Yoshiaki Kanno, M.D., Ph.D.3; Koh Okamoto, M.D., M.S.2; Sohei Harada, M.D., Ph.D.2; Shu Okugawa, M.D., Ph.D.3; Kohei Miyazono, M.D., Ph.D.4; Yasuyuki Seto, M.D., Ph.D.5; Jun-ichiro Inoue, Ph.D.6
1Department of Acute Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
2Department of Infection Control and Prevention, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
3Department of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
4Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
5Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
6Senior Professor Office, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This case series was approved by the institutional review board at the University of Tokyo (#3820). The institutional treatment board at The University of Tokyo Hospital approved the treatment protocol of antiviral agents of favipiravir and nafamostat mesylate (#2020001CL). Informed consent for treatment was obtained from each patient or legal representative.
Consent for publication
One author (JI) has submitted a provisional application for a patent related to this work to USPTO under the application no. 62988962. The other authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with the contents of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
About this article
Cite this article
Doi, K., Ikeda, M., Hayase, N. et al. Nafamostat mesylate treatment in combination with favipiravir for patients critically ill with Covid-19: a case series. Crit Care 24, 392 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03078-z