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Table 3 Proposed research priorities for study of the interaction between the gut microbiome and sepsis

From: The gut microbiome’s role in the development, maintenance, and outcomes of sepsis

Current knowledge gap: Studies should address:
The role of gut microbiome alteration on sepsis predisposition • Longitudinal microbiome changes in groups at high risk for sepsis
• Microbiome characteristics that indicate high risk for sepsis, including whether these can be used for prediction/diagnosis
• Mechanisms linking increase or decrease of specific taxa to sepsis risk
• How gut microbiome alterations with loss of protective taxa impacts immune dysregulation predisposing to sepsis
• Impact of SCFAs on protection from sepsis
• If altering the gut microbiome can decrease sepsis risk
How the gut microbiome impacts sepsis outcomes • Correlation of markers of gut microbiome alteration with end-organ dysfunction and mortality
• Whether specific patterns of alteration can predict adverse outcomes in sepsis
• Gut microbiome changes that contribute to dysregulated immune responses of sepsis
• Role of pathobionts and antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic selection
Whether microbiome-directed therapeutics can impact sepsis outcomes • Which patients with microbiome alteration may benefit from attempting to restore the gut microbiome to lower risk of sepsis
• Which patients with sepsis may benefit from microbiome-directed therapeutics to improve sepsis outcomes
• The ideal method of gut microbiome therapeutics (i.e., probiotics, FMT)
• The specific dose, timing, and frequency of FMT that may benefit patients in these groups
  1. FMT fecal microbiota transplant, SCFA short-chain fatty acid