Skip to main content

Optimizing ceftolozane-tazobactam dosage during continuous renal replacement therapy: additional insights

A Letter to this article was published on 10 January 2020

The Original Article was published on 26 April 2019

We read the recent report by Aguilar et al., who concluded that among patients with nosocomial peritonitis who are on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) at a dose of 3 g every 8 h is safe [1]. This finding was additional information following the notion that CRRT was an independent predictor of clinical failure when C/T was administered at 1.5 g every 8 h [2]. The Aguilar et al. protocol included a short infusion time, i.e., 1 h [1]. Previously described extended-infusion over 4 h was found to reach above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), given that beta-lactam antibiotics exhibit time-dependent antibacterial activity [3]. This might prevent underdosing during CRRT [3]. Besides, the C/T elimination was explained by diffusion [1]. However, adsorption was not assessed. The acrylonitrile 69 Multiflow (AN-69-M) membrane, used in this study, has a lower adsorptive capacity compared with the AN69 surface-treated (AN69-ST) membrane, which is considered a highly adsorptive membrane (HAM). In a recent comparison of polysulphone versus AN-69-M for C/T extraction by CRRT in an ex vivo model [4], there was no difference in adsorption. In a case report, a continuous infusion (CI) of 6 g in 24 h of C/T was used in a cystic fibrosis patient with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and augmented renal clearance to optimize time-dependent antibacterial activity [5]. In this patient, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) confirmed adequate exposure [5]. CI and TDM are two critical parameters when using C/T for patients receiving CRRT especially when MICs of bacteria like MDR P. aeruginosa are considered very high.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.



Acrylonitrile 69 Multiflow


AN69-surface treated




Continuous infusion


Continuous renal replacement therapy


Highly adsorptive membranes


Multi-drug resistant


Minimal inhibitory concentration


  1. Aguilar G, Ferriols R, Martínez-Castro S, Ezquer C, Pastor E, Carbonell JA, Alós M, Navarro D. Optimizing ceftolozane-tazobactam dosage in critically ill patients during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Crit Care. 2019;23(1):145.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Mussini C, Righi E, Tascini C, et al. Ceftolozane/tazobactam for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections: a multicenter nationwide clinical experience. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018;53(4):408–15. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Oliver WD, Heil EL, Gonzales JP, Mehrotra S, Robinett K, Saleeb P, Nicolau DP. Ceftolozane-tazobactam pharmacokinetics in a critically ill patient on continuous venovenous hemofiltration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;60(3):1899–901.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Chaijamorn W, Shaw AR, Lewis SJ, Mueller BA. Ex vivo ceftolozane/tazobactam clearance during continuous renal replacement therapy. Blood Purif. 2017;44(1):16–23. Epub 2017 Feb 25.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Elizabeth Davis S, Ham J, Hucks J, Gould A, Foster R, Ann Justo J, Nicolau DP, Bookstaver PB. Use of continuous infusion ceftolozane-tazobactam with therapeutic drug monitoring in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019;76(8):501–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


We would like to thank Prof. Kianoush Kashani, MD, PhD, FCCP (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA) for critically reviewing the manuscript.



Author information

Authors and Affiliations



PMH and DDB designed the paper. All authors participated in the drafting and reviewing. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Patrick M. Honore.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This comment refers to the article available at

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Honore, P.M., Mugisha, A., Barreto Gutierrez, L. et al. Optimizing ceftolozane-tazobactam dosage during continuous renal replacement therapy: additional insights. Crit Care 23, 406 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: