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Icatibant as an early rescue therapy in hypovolemic shock with converting enzyme inhibitor treatment
Critical Carevolume 21, Article number: 271 (2017)
The Letter to this article has been published in Critical Care 2019 23:289
Activation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key adaptive response to hypovolemia aiming at maintaining mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and organ perfusion. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy, widely prescribed to treat chronic hypertension, chronic heart disease, or diabetic nephropathy, blunts this adaptive mechanism . These treatments may therefore put patients at risk of life-threatening complications after general anesthesia or hypovolemia [2, 3]. Because the pharmacological effects of ACEI therapy are partly mediated by bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) activation, we hypothesized that acute B2R blockade would be beneficial in this setting. We previously showed that acute B2R blockade by icatibant, a specific B2R antagonist, significantly improves hemodynamics in a murine model of mild pressure and volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock under ACEI treatment (with 0.3 ml of blood withdrawn) . In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acute B2R blockade increases survival of ACEI-treated mice in severe hemorrhagic shock. To confirm this hypothesis, we induced severe volume-targeted hemorrhagic shock by 40% blood spoliation (i.e., 0.6 ml).
First, we confirmed our previous results regarding the beneficial effect of icatibant to prevent the deleterious hemodynamic consequences of ACEIs in shocked mice. In fact, the mean arterial blood pressures during shock in the ACEI group were significantly lower compared to the control and ACEI group treated with icatibant (25 [25–75% interquartile range (IQR), 21–29] mmHg vs 38 [25–75% IQR, 33–43] mmHg and 36 [25–75% IQR, 35–38] mmHg, respectively; p < 0.001). Second, we showed that survival in the control and ACEI groups treated with icatibant was significantly higher (81.8 and 90.9%, respectively) than in the ACEI group (36.4%) (p < 0.01). Of note, poor outcome was mostly observed in ACEI-treated mice while control untreated mice had good outcomes. Figure 1 describes the protocol design (Fig. 1a) and shows the survival curve from the beginning of shock to sacrifice (Fig. 1b). The life-saving benefit of B2R blockade was quickly achieved and sustained with a single subcutaneous injection of icatibant. This injection was given only prior to shock. None of the group received conventional vasopressors. However, efficacy of vasopressors has been challenged in this setting .
The results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that very early administration of icatibant may limit the consequences of hemorrhagic shock in patients treated with ACEIs before resuscitation could be initiated. Further research is needed with respect to dose and timing of icatibant administration and comparison with conventional vasopressors.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
Bradykinin B2 receptor
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Dr. Matthieu Legrand is thanked for reviewing the manuscript.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
The animal experiments were performed according to the national and institutional animal care and ethical guidelines and were approved by the local board (Comité d’Ethique en matière d’Expérimentation Animale CEEA122 US006/CREFRE; reference CEEA122 2014-75). The animals used in this study were 18- to 24-week-old C57/BL6 wild-type mice (Harlan, Gannat, France).
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