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Table 1 Univariate analysis of patient characteristics in intubated and nonintubated subjects

From: Severe varicella-zoster virus pneumonia: a multicenter cohort study

  Overall (n = 102) Nonintubated (n = 50) Intubateda (n = 51) p
Demographics
 Age, years 39 (32–51) 35 (29.25–40.5) 46 (36.25–55.75) 0.0005
 Male gender 64 (63%) 28 (56%) 36 (70.6%) 0.04
 Tobacco smokers 52 (51%) 29 (58%) 23 (45.1%) 0.23
Co-morbidities
 Any comorbidity 91 (89%) 41 (82%) 49 (96%) 0.03
 Hypertension 14 (14%) 3 (6%) 11 (21.6%) 0.04
 Cardiovascular disease 8 (8%) 3 (6%) 5 (9.8%) 0.72
 Diabetes 7 (7%) 3 (6%) 4 (7.8%) 1
 Chronic kidney disease 7 (7%) 2 (4%) 5 (9.8%) 0.44
 Chronic respiratory insufficiency 6 (6%) 2 (4%) 3 (5.9%) 1
 Otherb 5 (5%) 1 (2%) 3 (5.9%) 0.62
Underlying IS 53 (52%) 18 (36%) 35 (68.6%) 0.001
 Solid organ transplantation 11 (11%) 5 (10%) 6 (11.8%) 1
 Solid malignancy 7 (7%) 1 (2%) 6 (11.8%) 0.11
 Hematological malignancy 15 (15%) 4 (8%) 11 (21.6%) 0.09
 Pregnancy 6 (6%) 4 (8%) 2 (3.9%) 0.44
 Steroids treatment 22 (22%) 7 (14%) 15 (29.4%) 0.09
 Other immunosuppressionc 6 (6%) 1 (2%) 5 (9.8%) 0.20
Respiratory parameters at ICU admission
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min 30 (24.5–35) 25 (22–30) 31 (28.25–39.75) 0.0006
 Oxygen flow, L/min 6 (3–15) 4 (2–8) 15 (9.75–15) <0.0001
 PaO2:FiO2 ratio, mmHg 150 (80–284) 250 (126.5–331) 90 (72–162) <0.0001
 Alveolar consolidation on chest X-ray 30 (33%) 9 (20%) 21 (46.7%) 0.01
 SOFA score at day 1 4 (3–7) 3 (2–4) 7 (5–10) <0.0001
 Time (days) from dyspnea onset to ICU admission 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 1 (1–3) 0.34
Empirical antibiotics at ICU 62 (61%) 19 (38%) 42 (84%) <0.0001
Early-documented bacterial co-infection 20 (20%) 4 (8%) 16 (31%) 0.005
Hospital mortality 24 (24%) 2 (4%) 22 (43%) <0.0001
  1. Values are shown as n (%) or median (25th–75th percentiles)
  2. aOne patient was not included in the mechanical ventilation analysis because of intubation 7 days before the diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus-related community-acquired pneumonia and for another reason (urgent surgery)
  3. bOther co-morbidities were: cirrhosis (2, 2%), hepatitis B virus chronic infection (1, 1%), hepatitis C virus chronic infection (1, 1%)
  4. cOther causes of immunosuppression were: splenectomy (2, 2%), HIV infection (1, 1%), tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists (1, 1%), methotrexate (1, 1%), azathioprine (1, 1%)
  5. ICU intensive care unit, IS immunosuppression, PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment