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Possible significance of hemodynamic and immunomodulatory effects of early stress-dose steroids in cardiac arrest
Critical Care volume 20, Article number: 211 (2016)
In an interesting randomized clinical trial (RCT), Donnino et al.  studied a mixed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) population and found no hydrocortisone versus placebo hemodynamic or in-hospital outcome benefit. In the hydrocortisone group, the median time to study intervention was 9.9 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) . This time lag probably exceeds the therapeutic window for the prevention of detrimental episodes of early post-resuscitation hypotension  through a mean arterial pressure (MAP)-stabilizing effect of steroids [3, 4].
Analyses of pooled post-resuscitation shock data from our IHCA vasopressin-steroids-epinephrine (VSE) RCTs [3, 4] also showed no between-group differences in the time to, or proportions of, discontinuation of vasopressors, and post-ROSC day 1 hemodynamic support (Table 1). However, VSE patients had higher, early post-ROSC systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and MAP during post-resuscitation follow-up [3, 4]. This reflected an improved hemodynamic response to similar vasopressor support titrated to a “wide” MAP range of 70–100 mmHg .
Recordings of “early post-ROSC SAP >90 mmHg” (i.e., “absence of early post-resuscitation hypotension” ) and “≥1 recorded/analyzed, day 1 MAP value of >80 mmHg ” were significantly more frequent in VSE patients than controls. Importantly, such SAP/MAP levels corresponded to more frequent survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcome  (Table 1).
Early post-resuscitation hemodynamics of VSE patients could be partly attributable to the steroids-vasopressin combination during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) [3, 4]. However, a previously postulated major CPR-VSE effect, i.e., shorter advanced life support duration , possibly leading to attenuated post-resuscitation cardiovascular dysfunction was not clear in the current subgroup analysis (Table 1). Hence, according to the short (i.e., 24 min) half-life of vasopressin, we propose that the more frequent day 1 MAP >80 mmHg was largely due to a post-ROSC steroid-induced augmentation of vascular responsiveness to vasopressors [3, 4]. A mediation analysis of VSE outcome benefit through day 1 MAP is warranted. Analysis of day 1 MAP data from the study by Donnino et al. might causally link between-RCT differences in corticosteroid timing with differences in survival/neurological outcome results [1, 3, 4].
Post-resuscitation disease is a “sepsis-like” syndrome. In sepsis, acute kidney injury severity is associated with mortality and elevated interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, high post-ROSC IL-6 is associated with organ dysfunction and poor long-term outcomes . Notably, post-resuscitation hydrocortisone has been associated with reduced IL-6 levels [1, 3], and VSE patients versus controls had more renal failure-free days [3, 4].
Conclusively, available evidence prompts toward further evaluation of early, stress-dose steroids in cardiac arrest.
CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; IHCA, in-hospital cardiac arrest; IL, interleukin; MAP, mean arterial pressure; RCT, randomized clinical trial; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; SAP, systolic arterial pressure; VSE, vasopressin-steroids-epinephrine
Donnino MW, Andersen LW, Berg KM, Collaborating authors from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center’s Center for Resuscitation Science Research Group, et al. Corticosteroid therapy in refractory shock following cardiac arrest: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial. Crit Care. 2016;20:82.
Trzeciak S, Jones AE, Kilgannon JH, et al. Significance of arterial hypotension after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:2895–903.
Mentzelopoulos SD, Zakynthinos SG, Tzoufi M, et al. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and corticosteroids for in-hospital cardiac arrest. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:15–24.
Mentzelopoulos SD, Malachias S, Chamos C, et al. Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favourable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310:270–9.
Vaahersalo J, Skrifvars MB, Pulkki K, et al. Admission interleukin-6 is associated with post resuscitation organ dysfunction and predicts long-term neurological outcome after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation. 2014;85:1573–9.
Availability of data and materials
For the purpose of the above-mentioned re-analysis protocol (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT02408939), we extracted individual peri-arrest and follow-up data from survivors for ≥4 h with post-resuscitation shock (n = 191) from an electronic masterfile containing de-identified data from references  and . Extracted, de-identified data was saved in a Microsoft Excel datafile. Data will not be shared because we plan to use it in a future mediation analysis mentioned in the fourth paragraph of the current main text.
SDM is responsible for the conception and drafting of the manuscript, conduct and accuracy of the data analyses, and interpretation of the results. NM, TX, and SGZ contributed to the interpretation of the results, and to critically important revisions of the original draft. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The pooled data analyses reported herein were performed as post hoc subanalyses of a re-analysis protocol of synthesized and de-identified data from references  and . The aforementioned re-analysis protocol has received the following Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals: Evaggelismos General Hospital approval No. 14/9/1/2015; 401 Greek Army Hospital approval No. 3/2015/5/2/2015; and Larissa University Hospital approval No. 58905/2014/14/1/2015. Modifications of the aforementioned re-analysis protocol have been approved by the Evaggelismos IRB (respective approval Nos. 29/25/2/2016 and 30/25/2/2016), and these approvals were ratified by the IRBs of the other two participating centers (401 Greek Army Hospital, IRB Decision No.: 4-2016/6/4/2016; Larissa University Hospital, IRB Decision No.: 5/19-5-2016/Θ.18). All the aforementioned, de-identified data analyses were conducted under a waiver of informed consent, because they were not associated with any clinical intervention.
See related research by Donnino et al., http://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-016-1257-x
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Mentzelopoulos, S.D., Mongardon, N., Xanthos, T. et al. Possible significance of hemodynamic and immunomodulatory effects of early stress-dose steroids in cardiac arrest. Crit Care 20, 211 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1384-4
- Cardiac Arrest
- Mean Arterial Pressure
- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
- Systolic Arterial Pressure
- Spontaneous Circulation