Open Access

Peri-operative fluid strategy and post-operative acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients: any role for pre-operative statin therapy?

  • Patrick M. Honore1Email author,
  • Rita Jacobs1,
  • Inne Hendrickx1,
  • Elisabeth De Waele1,
  • Viola Van Gorp1 and
  • Herbert D. Spapen1
Critical Care201519:453

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-1174-4

Published: 29 December 2015

The original article was published in Critical Care 2015 19:350

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients. In this context, the recent paper by Kim et al., showing that a peri-operative liberal ‘saline- and starch-based’ fluid management significantly enhanced the incidence of severe post-operative AKI in off-pump cardiac surgery patients, is to be acclaimed [1].

With regard to the potential culprit(s) triggering this AKI, the authors pointed at ‘usual suspects’ such as excess chloride and intrinsic starch-induced renal tubular lesions. However, it is noteworthy that patients in the at-risk group were less likely (p = 0.001!) to be receiving statins before surgery [1]. Statins may prevent kidney injury through inhibition of post-operative inflammatory processes. Compared with statin-naive subjects, cardiac surgery patients taking statins indeed had reduced levels of circulating C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor alpha, myeloperoxidase, and pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8 and higher concentrations of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 [2]. The largest meta-analysis to date, including nearly 60,000 cardiac surgery patients, revealed a 13 % reduction of post-operative AKI in patients pre-operatively treated with statins [3].

Whether statins embrace the kidney as friend or foe is debatable but probably depends upon the type of study cohort (e.g. septic vs. non-septic), the intervention (e.g. surgery), and pre-existing chronic kidney disease. For example, agent-dependent ‘high potency’ statin doses increase the risk of AKI in a general patient population [4] whereas the use of corresponding high doses in cardiac surgery patients appears to exhibit a reno-protective effect [5].

Authors’ response

  • Ji-Yeon Kim and
  • Eun-Ho Lee
  • We thank Professor Honore and colleagues for their interest in our article [1] and their comment. Statin has been widely used in patients with cardiovascular disorders. We agree that the patients in the control group were less likely to be receiving statin before the surgery, which could have affected our results. However, although some clinical studies have suggested a reno-protective effect of statin in patients undergoing cardiac surgery [6, 7], there is a lack of evidence to support the beneficial effect of pre-operative statin on renal function after cardiac surgery. Previous studies have reported that pre-operative statin therapy is not associated with a reduced incidence of post-operative AKI [8], including after cardiac surgery [9]. Nevertheless, we tested the impact of pre-operative statin treatment on our results. Although pre-operative statin treatment was not associated with post-operative AKI (odds ratio 0.95 (95 % confidence interval 0.65–1.39), p = 0.78) in a univariate analysis, we forced the variable into the final model and there was still a significant association between the renal protective fluid management strategy and post-operative AKI (odds ratio 0.23 (95 % confidence interval 0.14–0.36), p <0.001). We can therefore definitely conclude that statins had no significant role to play in our observations.

    Notes

    Abbreviations

    AKI: 

    acute kidney injury

    IL: 

    interleukin

    Declarations

    Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

    Authors’ Affiliations

    (1)
    ICU Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

    References

    1. Kim JY, Joung KW, Kim KM, Kim MJ, Kim JB, Jung SH. Relationship between a perioperative intravenous fluid administration strategy and acute kidney injury following off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: an observational study. Crit Care. 2015;19:350.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    2. Garwood S. Statins and cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24:909–12.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    3. Wang J, Gu C, Gao M, Yu W, Yu Y. Preoperative statin therapy and renal outcomes after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of 59,771 patients. Can J Cardiol. 2015;31:1051–60.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    4. Dormuth CR, Hemmelgarn BR, Paterson JM, James MT, Teare GF, Raymond CB, et al. Use of high potency statins and rates of admission for acute kidney injury: multicenter, retrospective observational analysis of administrative databases. BMJ. 2013;346:f880. doi:10.1136/bmj.f880.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    5. Mithani S, Kuskowski M, Slinin Y, Ishani A, McFalls E, Adabag S. Dose-dependent effect of statins on the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91:520–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    6. Huffmyer JL, Mauermann WJ, Thiele RH, Ma JZ, Nemergut EC. Preoperative statin administration is associated with lower mortality and decreased need for postoperative hemodialysis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009;23:468–73.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    7. Virani SS, Nambi V, Polsani VR, Lee VV, Elayda M, Kohsaka S, et al. Preoperative statin therapy decreases risk of postoperative renal insufficiency. Cardiovasc Ther. 2010;28:80–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    8. Argalious M, Xu M, Sun Z, Smedira N, Koch CG. Preoperative statin therapy is not associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:324–30.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
    9. Nemati MH, Astaneh B. The effects of preoperative statins on the incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015;21:493–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar

    Copyright

    © Honore et al. 2015

    Advertisement