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Critical Care

Open Access

Continuous renal replacement therapy for safe and adequate voriconazole intravenous treatment: enough reason to be confident?

  • Patrick M Honore1Email author,
  • Rita Jacobs1,
  • Inne Hendrickx1,
  • Elisabeth De Waele1,
  • Viola Van Gorp1 and
  • Herbert D Spapen1
Critical Care201519:234

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-0946-1

Published: 27 May 2015

Keywords

VoriconazoleContinuous Renal Replacement TherapyFilter FunctionPharmacological EvidenceCutoff Membrane

Voriconazole is a first-line agent for treatment of systemic mycotic infections. However, intravenous use is contraindicated in patients with creatinine clearance <50 ml/minute because of accumulation of the toxic vehicle sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin sodium [1, 2]. In a recent issue of Critical Care, Kiser and colleagues furnished convincing pharmacological evidence that sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin sodium but not voriconazole was effectively removed by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). They concluded that standard intravenous voriconazole doses could be safely used when patients were placed under continuous renal replacement therapy [3].

We acknowledge the clinical relevance of this study but advocate a more balanced appraisal of the results. First, Kiser and colleagues applied CVVH doses ranging from approximately 25 to 75 ml/kg/hour in a small group of patients. This approach might introduce significant difference in substance elimination and does not conform to routinely used CVVH doses. Second, the study showed that sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin sodium, being a middle molecular weight substance, was highly and dose-dependently eliminated by convection. However, diffusion-based continuous renal replacement therapy arguably will produce equally effective elimination. Third, if CVVH is performed without high flux or high cutoff membranes, convective capacity may rapidly falter due to a decrease in membrane porosity. This can be avoided by using regional citrate anticoagulation, which was not applied in this study.

Therefore, we recommend using CVVH (to privilege convective drug elimination) at a dose of 35 ml/kg/hour (to assure a minimal delivered dose of 25 ml/kg/hour) under regional citrate anticoagulation (to consolidate filter function) for permitting safe and adequate intravenous voriconazole treatment.

Notes

Abbreviations

CVVH: 

continuous veno-venous hemofiltration

Declarations

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
ICU Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel – Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Jette, Belgium

References

  1. von Mach MA, Burhenne J, Weilemann LS. Accumulation of the solvent vehicle sulphobutylether beta cyclodextrin sodium in critically ill patients treated with intravenous voriconazole under renal replacement therapy. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2006;6:6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Luke DR, Tomaszewski K, Damle B, Schlamm HT. Review of the basic and clinical pharmacology of sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD). J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:3291–301.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kiser TH, Fish DN, Aquilante CL, Rower JE, Wempe MF, MacLaren R, et al. Evaluation of sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD) accumulation and voriconazole pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy. Crit Care. 2015;19:32.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Honore et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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