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Descriptive analysis of ICU patients with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia at four academic medical centers
Critical Care volume 12, Article number: P5 (2008)
We developed an ICU performance improvement project to evaluate patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) using the 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. Below is a descriptive analysis of the patients enrolled and their outcomes.
Data were collected prospectively. Patients were classified as VAP, HAP and HCAP. Antibiotics were chosen based on local antibiograms.
The first 158 patients are reported (VAP n = 120, HAP n = 26 and HCAP n = 12). Patients often had comorbidities; diabetes (22%), cardiac (22%), respiratory (21%) and renal (16%). Microorganisms were identified in 78% of patients. One hundred and twenty-five patients received empiric therapy (ET). ET was compliant with the guidelines in 31% of these patients. De-escalation of antibiotic therapy occurred on day 3 in 75% (77/103) of candidates. Clinical improvement and/or cure were seen in 70% of patients. Superinfections developed in 37% of the patients. In patients requiring mechanical ventilatory support, the average days on the ventilator was 12 ± 17 days. Patients' average stay (days) in the ICU* and hospital* differed by group: VAP (17 ± 14 days, 23 ± 19 days), HAP (9 ± 10 days, 13 ± 13 days) and HCAP (11 ± 19 days, 22 ± 36 days), respectively. *Comparisons with P < 0.05. See Table 1.
VAP, as compared with HAP and HCAP, had the highest severity of illness, mortality, and consumption of ICU and hospital resources. Published guidelines are not easily translated into daily practice.
Kett DH, Ramirez JA, Peyrani P, et al.: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005, 71: 388-416.
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Kett, D., Ramirez, J., Peyrani, P. et al. Descriptive analysis of ICU patients with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia at four academic medical centers. Crit Care 12 (Suppl 2), P5 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc6226