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Effects of hypertonic saline solution and pentoxifylline on rat mesenteric microcirculation after hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion followed by cecal ligation/puncture: an intravital microscopic study


Hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion followed by sepsis triggers systemic microcirculatory disturbances that may induce multiple organ failure. The present in-vivo study evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) (7.5%, 4 ml/kg) and pentoxifylline (PTX) (4 mg/kg) on mesenteric microcirculation in double-injured rats.


Thirty-three anesthetized Wistar rats (~250 g) were randomly assigned to: (1) SHAM: no injury group; (2) HSS: hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion with HSS; (3) LR: hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion with lactated Ringer's solution (LR), three times shed blood volume; (4) HSS + PTX: hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion with HSS associated with PTX; and (5) LR + PTX: hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion with LR associated with PTX. The animals were submitted to cecal ligation/puncture (second injury).


Leukocyte – endothelium interactions (Table 1) were assessed by intravital microscopy at mesenteric postcapillaric venules (~21.07 μm diameter).

Table 1 Leukocyte – endothelial interactions in mesenteric postcapillaric venules


The in-vivo observation of the rat mesenteric microcirculation showed that, in a double-injury model, reperfusion of the animals with HSS and PTX did attenuate the inflammation response compared with LR-reperfused animals.


Funded by FAPESP and PRONEX.

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  • Blood Volume
  • Organ Failure
  • Multiple Organ
  • Multiple Organ Failure
  • Hypertonic Saline Solution