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Table 1 Characteristics of the trials not eligible for meta-analysis

From: Exogenous pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a meta-analysis

Reference Number of patients Exclusion criteria Delivery method Type of surfactant Other remarks
Reines and colleagues, 1992 [27] 49 Abstract only Aerosolized Exosurf (synthetic, no surfactant protein) Published as an abstract. Placebo-controlled. Trend for improvement in the PaO2:FiO2 ratio and mortality
MacIntyre and colleagues, 1994 [26] 10 Abstract only. No control group. No data on oxygenation or mortality Aerosolized Exosurf (synthetic, no surfactant protein) Published as an abstract. Only 4.5% of aerosolized radiolabeled surfactant reached the lungs
Spragg and colleagues, 1994 [15] 6 Crossover trial Bronchoscopic Porcine surfactant Trend for improved oxygenation. Findings of reduced inhibition of surfactant function in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after surfactant replacement
Walmrath and colleagues, 1996 [13] 10 No control group Bronchoscopic Alveofact (natural bovine surfactant) Trend for improvement in oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2 ratio)
Pallua and colleagues, 1998 [12] 4 No control group Bronchoscopic Alveofact (natural bovine surfactant) Improved oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2 ratio)
Wiswell and colleagues, 1999 [11] 12 No control group Bronchoscopic Surfaxin (synthetic surfactant) Surfactant administration was safe. FiO2 and positive end-expiratory pressure decreased after treatment initiation
Walmrath and colleagues, 2000 [25] 41 Abstract only Intratracheal Venticute (rSP-C-based surfactant) Published as an abstract. Randomized. Trend for improvement in PaO2:FiO2 ratio, number of ventilator-free days and successful weaning at 28 days in patients receiving surfactant
Kesecioglu and colleagues, 2001 [22] 36 Abstract only Intratracheal Porcine surfactant Published as an abstract. Randomized. Surfactant administration was safe. PaO2:FiO2 ratio and survival were improved in surfactant group
Spragg and colleagues, 2001 [24] 40 Abstract only Intratracheal Venticute (rSP-C-based surfactant) Published as an abstract. Randomized. Surfactant treatment may reduce acute pulmonary inflammation
Walmrath and colleagues, 2002 [14] 27 No control group Bronchoscopic Alveofact (natural bovine surfactant) Surfactant administration was safe. Improved PaO2:FiO2 ratio
Spragg and colleagues, 2002 [23] 448 Abstract only Intratracheal Venticute (rSP-C-based surfactant) Published as an abstract. Randomized. Improved PaO2:FiO2 ratio. No mortality benefit
Gregory and colleagues, 2003 [21] 22 Abstract only. No control group Bronchoscopic Surfaxin (synthetic surfactant) Published as an abstract. Procedure found to be safe and tolerable
  1. rSP-C, recombinant surfactant protein C.