Skip to content

Advertisement

Critical Care

Open Access

Ventilator-associated pneumonia in intubated children: comparison of different diagnostic methods

  • F Gauvin1,
  • C Dassa1,
  • M Chaïbou1,
  • F Proulx1,
  • CA Farrell1 and
  • J Lacroix1
Critical Care20037(Suppl 2):P145

https://doi.org/10.1186/cc2034

Published: 3 March 2003

Keywords

Diagnostic MethodBronchoalveolar LavageClinical CriterionClinical JudgmentIntracellular Bacterium

Introduction

The best method for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in children is much debated. Clinical criteria alone may not be sufficiently reliable. Bronchoscopic techniques are not routinely used. Blind (nonbronchoscopic) protected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been studied in pediatrics but has never been validated according to the gold standard (autopsy).

Objective

To compare different diagnostic methods of VAP in children, using clinical judgment of an adjudicating committee of experts as the reference standard.

Methods

Setting

Prospective study of all consecutive PICU patients < 18 years with suspected VAP.

Diagnostic methods compared

1) clinical data using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria; 2) blind protected BAL, evaluating quantitative cultures, bacterial index, Gram stain and presence of intracellular bacteria; 3) nonquantitative cultures of endotracheal secretions.

Reference standard

Consensus of three independent experts (Delphi method) who retrospectively established the presence of VAP based on clinical, microbiological and radiological data.

Analysis

Concordance between each diagnostic method and the reference standard was evaluated by concordance percentage and kappa score. Validity was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity and global value.

Results

Thirty patients were included in the study. According to the reference standard, VAP occured in 10/30 patients (33%). Concordance and validity of the different methods are presented in Table 1.
Table 1

:

Diagnostic method

Number of patients with positive results (n/30)

Concordance with reference standard (%)

Kappa score

Sensitivity (%)

Specificity (%)

Global value (%)

Clinical criteria (CDC)

28

43

0.11

100

15

43

BAL

      

   Culture ≥ 102 CFU/ml

14

67

0.32

70

65

67

   Culture ≥ 103 CFU/ml

11

70

0.34

60

75

70

   Culture ≥ 104 CFU/ml

9

70

0.31

50

80

70

   Culture ≥ 105 CFU/ml

6

67

0.17

30

85

67

Intracellular bacteria

4

73

0.29

30

95

73

Gram stain

9

70

0.31

50

81

73

Bacterial index > 5

9

83

0.61

78

86

90

Endotracheal culture

21

57

0.24

90

40

57

Conclusion

Our data show that the most reliable diagnostic method for VAP is a bacterial index > 5. Further studies should evaluate the validity of all these methods according to the gold standard (autopsy).

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montréal, Canada

Copyright

© BioMed Central Ltd 2003

Advertisement