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Efficacy of idarucizumab, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and activated PCC to reverse the anticoagulatory potential of dabigatran in a porcine polytrauma model

Introduction

The anticoagulant effect of dabigatran can be reversed with idarucizumab or PCCs in porcine blood in vitro [1]. However, the impact on clinical parameters such as blood loss is not known. Thus, this study assessed the efficacy of idarucizumab in comparison with PCC and aPCC in dabigatran-anticoagulated swine following polytrauma on clinically relevant endpoints.

Methods

After ethical approval, 28 male pigs were administered dabigatran etexilate (30 mg/kg twice daily p.o.) for 3 days. Dabigatran was administered intravenously in anaesthetised animals on day 4 to achieve consistent high concentrations. Animals were randomised to receive idarucizumab (60 mg/kg, n = 7), PCC (50 U/kg; n = 7), aPCC (50 U/kg; n = 7) or placebo (n = 7). Intervention started 12 minutes after bilateral femur fractures and a standardised blunt liver injury. The primary endpoint was blood loss (observation period 300 minutes). Further, histopathology, haemodynamics and several coagulation variables were also assessed. Data were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA (mean ± SD).

Results

Dabigatran levels were comparable between groups (571 ± 174 ng/ml) and resulted in altered coagulation variables. Blood loss was comparable 12 minutes post trauma between groups (801 ± 49 ml) and increased to 3,816 ± 236 ml in anticoagulated control animals post injury. Idarucizumab treatment reduced total blood loss to 1,086 ± 55 ml (P < 0.005 vs. all), aPCC to 1,639 ± 104 ml (P < 0.05 vs. control) and PCC to 1,797 ± 80 ml (P < 0.05 vs. control) after 5 hours. All animals in the intervention groups survived, whereas control animals died within the observation period (mean survival: 89 minutes, range: 62 to 145 minutes). In histopathology no signs of thromboembolic events were present. Altered coagulation variables returned to baseline levels after idarucizumab application and were also significantly, although inconsistently and to a lesser extent, ameliorated following PCCs.

Conclusion

All medical interventions were associated with reduced blood loss and increased survival. However, idarucizumab, a specific antidote to dabigatran, reduced total blood loss more prominently and normalised coagulation parameters to a greater degree as compared with either PCC or aPCC.

References

  1. 1.

    Grottke O, et al: Crit Care. 2014, 18: R27-10.1186/cc13717.

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

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Honickel, M., Braunschweig, T., Ryn, J.V. et al. Efficacy of idarucizumab, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and activated PCC to reverse the anticoagulatory potential of dabigatran in a porcine polytrauma model. Crit Care 19, P351 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc14431

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Keywords

  • Blood Loss
  • Dabigatran
  • Femur Fracture
  • Prothrombin Complex Concentrate
  • Dabigatran Etexilate
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