Sepsis is characterized by a strong systemic inflammatory reaction. The pathogenesis is driven by alterations in the immune system and is associated with high neutrophil counts related to a specific delay in apoptosis . The apolipoproteins L (ApoLs) family comprises six members in humans (ApoL1 to ApoL6). In light of their deregulated expression in several pathologies, they are likely to be important molecular players of programmed cell death . We analyzed ApoL expression in cohorts of septic and nonseptic ICU patients and healthy volunteers in order to test whether ApoLs could be involved in the neutrophil apoptotic program.