Early phases of sepsis: effects of simvastatin on mitochondrial enzyme activities in kidney tissue in rats
© Özkök et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Published: 3 December 2014
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious complication of sepsis. Moreover, there is strong evidence that AKI in patients with severe sepsis is associated with a higher mortality rate. The devastating effects of Gram-negative sepsis are largely based on the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to the development of organ dysfunction and failure in sepsis. The mitochondrial electron transport chain consists of four complexes (CI to CIV) and its function can be assessed with different approaches. Statins, such as simvastatin and atorvastatin, are hypocholesterolemic drugs that possess pleiotropic effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, that are either dependent on or independent of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) inhibition. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that simvastatin has an anti-inflammatory effect in patients with predialytic chronic kidney disease, and may play an important role in counteracting the mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of inflammation. We aimed to investigate the effects of prior simvastatin on mitochondrial enzyme activities in kidney tissue of the early phase of sepsis.
We used male adult Wistar albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g in the experiments. The rats were divided into four groups, each composed of eight rats: control group, LPS group, Simvastatin group, Simvastatin + LPS group. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli O127:B8 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) was injected intraperitoneally at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg, Simvastatin (20 mg/kg) was given p.o. via oral gavage for 5 days. In the Simvastatin + LPS-treated group, LPS was given 1.5 hours after the fifth dose of simvastatin. Mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes citrate synthase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase (complex I + III), and NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) were measured kinetically in spectrophotometer from kidney tissue homogenate. The kidney tissue samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and analyzed during analysis of variance.
- Oppert M, Engel C, Brunkhorst FM, et al.: Acute renal failure in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock - a significant independent risk factor for mortality: results from the German Prevalence Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008, 23: 904-909.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen J: The immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Nature 2002, 420: 885-891. 10.1038/nature01326View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crouser ED, Julian MW, Blaho DV, Pfeiffer DR: Endotoxin-induced mitochondrial damage correlates with impaired respiratory activity. Crit Care Med 2002, 30: 276-284. 10.1097/00003246-200202000-00002View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jeger V, Djafarzadeh S, Jakob SM, Takala J: Mitochondrial function in sepsis. Eur J Clin Invest 2013, 43: 532-542. 10.1111/eci.12069View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.