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Critical Care

Volume 18 Supplement 2

Sepsis 2014

Open Access

Role of 6-hour, 12-hour, and 24-hour lactate clearance in mortality of severe sepsis and septic shock patients

  • V Herwanto1,
  • KC Lie2,
  • S Suwarto2 and
  • CM Rumende3
Critical Care201418(Suppl 2):P2

Published: 3 December 2014


Severe SepsisLactate LevelSurvivor GroupReceiver Operator CurveHospital Ward


Lactate is one of biomarkers used for risk stratification, resuscitation target, and death prediction in sepsis [1, 2]. Interpretation of lactate clearance was proven more superior than single measurement to evaluate resuscitation adequacy and to determine prognosis [3, 4]. This study aimed to find out whether mean differences of 6-hour, 12-hour, and 24-hour lactate clearance were observed between nonsurvivors and survivors of acute phase mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients.


The study design was prospective cohort. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling from the emergency department, hospital ward, and ICU at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Lactate levels were measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours, and subjects were subsequently followed to evaluate 3-day mortality. To determine their association with mortality, we used mean difference analysis of those three lactate clearance periods between nonsurvivors and survivors. In addition, to determine the cutoff value, we used receiver operator curve analysis.


Eighty-one subjects were included in this study. Eighty of 81 were followed until 12 hours, and 72 out of 80 were followed until 24 hours. Twenty-five subjects (31%) did not survive within 3 days of hospitalization. Only 24-hour lactate clearance had significant median difference (-17.0% in nonsurvivor vs. 15.2% in survivor group; P = 0.034). The best cutoff value for 24-hour lactate clearance was -6.0% (AUC 0.744, sensitivity 62.5% and specificity 87.5%, positive predictive value 58.8% and negative predictive value 89.1%, relative risk 5.39). From multivariate analysis, 24-hour lactate clearance was proven to be an independent predictor of mortality.


Median of 24-hour lactate clearance was significantly lower in nonsurvivors of severe sepsis and septic shock patients. Its cutoff value was -6.0%.



Gratitude to Dr Imam Subekti, head of Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, and Dr Aida Lydia, head of Internal Medicine study program, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia for their guidance and useful critiques of this research work. Thanks also to Dr Kuntjoro Harimurti, Dr Esthika Dewiasty, and Ms Utami for their advice and assistance in doing methodology and statistic of this study.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Division of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Division of Respirology and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia


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© Herwanto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.