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Table 1 Main biomarkers of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and dosage correlated with initial severity, neurological prognosis and mortality

From: Biomarkers and acute brain injuries: interest and limits

 

Dosage

Initial severity

GOS

 

Biomarker

CSF

Plasma

GCS

WFNS

HH

Fisher

3 months

6 months

12 months

Mortality

ET-1

+

+

  

+ (CSF)

    

+ (plasma)

TNF-α

+

+

  

– CSF)

 

– (CSF)

   

IL-6

+

   

  

+

  

IL-1β

+

   

 

   

ICAM-1, VCAM-1

+

+

 

– (CSF, plasma)

– (CSF, plasma)

   

– (CSF, plasma)

 

Light-chain NF

+

       

+

 

Heavy-chain NF

+

 

+

+

  

+

   

ApoE

+

 

+

  

+

   

S100β

+

+

– (CSF)

+ (plasma)

 

+ (plasma)

– (CSF)

+ (plasma)

  

ANP

 

+

  

+ (plasma)

+ (plasma)

    

BNP

 

+

   

+

   

+

cTnI

 

+

+

 

+

+

+

  

+

vWF, MMP-9, VEGF

 

+

   

+

    

CRP

+

+

+ (CSF, plasma)

 

+ (CSF, plasma)

+ (CSF, plasma)

+ (CSF, plasma)

   
  1. +, correlation described; −, lack of correlation; plasma/CSF, dosing site. ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; ApoE, apolipoprotein E; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; cTnI, cardiac troponin I; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ET-1, endothelin-1; Fisher, Fisher classification; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale; HH, Hunt and Hunter classification; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL, interleukin; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9; NF, neurofilament; S100β, S100β protein; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; vWF, von Willebrand factor; WFNS, World Federation of Neurosurgeons classification.