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Table 1 Main biomarkers of subarachnoid haemorrhage, and dosage correlated with initial severity, neurological prognosis and mortality

From: Biomarkers and acute brain injuries: interest and limits

  Dosage Initial severity GOS  
Biomarker CSF Plasma GCS WFNS HH Fisher 3 months 6 months 12 months Mortality
ET-1 + +    + (CSF)      + (plasma)
TNF-α + +    – CSF)   – (CSF)    
IL-6 +       +   
IL-1β +        
ICAM-1, VCAM-1 + +   – (CSF, plasma) – (CSF, plasma)     – (CSF, plasma)  
Light-chain NF +         +  
Heavy-chain NF +   + +    +    
ApoE +   +    +    
S100β + + – (CSF) + (plasma)   + (plasma) – (CSF) + (plasma)   
ANP   +    + (plasma) + (plasma)     
BNP   +     +     +
cTnI   + +   + + +    +
vWF, MMP-9, VEGF   +     +     
CRP + + + (CSF, plasma)   + (CSF, plasma) + (CSF, plasma) + (CSF, plasma)    
  1. +, correlation described; −, lack of correlation; plasma/CSF, dosing site. ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; ApoE, apolipoprotein E; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; cTnI, cardiac troponin I; CRP, C-reactive protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ET-1, endothelin-1; Fisher, Fisher classification; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; GOS, Glasgow Outcome Scale; HH, Hunt and Hunter classification; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL, interleukin; MMP-9, matrix metalloproteinase-9; NF, neurofilament; S100β, S100β protein; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; vWF, von Willebrand factor; WFNS, World Federation of Neurosurgeons classification.