- Poster presentation
- Open Access
Lactate levels in emergency department patients across all causes of physiologic instability
© Ødorf et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Published: 5 November 2013
- Emergency Department
- Acute Renal Failure
- Lactate Level
- Lactate Concentration
Physiologic instability (PI) is a common, critical problem in the emergency department (ED) [1, 2], and can have different underlying causes. The ability to determine the underlying cause of instability is paramount for early treatment and risk stratification . Lactate has been shown to have prognostic value in some categories of unstable patients [4, 5]. The objective of this study was to investigate how serum lactate concentrations differ across categories of PI and the association of lactate concentrations with clinical deterioration for each category.
A prospective observational study of adult patients with PI at a university ED. PI was defined as lactate ≥4 mmol/l, or >5 minutes of heart rate (HR) ≥130, or respiratory rate (RR) ≥24, or shock index ≥1, or systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg. We excluded patients with no lactate measurements, isolated atrial tachycardia, seizure, intoxication, psychiatric agitation, or tachycardia due to pain. A physician retrospectively categorized PI cause. Categories were defined as septic, cardiogenic, hemorrhagic, hypovolemic, or other. The primary outcome was deterioration, defined as: acute renal failure (elevated creatinine to ≥2× baseline levels), intubation, vasopressors, or in-hospital mortality.
Lactate levels were not significantly different between the five groups with PI. However, in patients in the sepsis or other group, elevated lactate predicted deterioration. This was not demonstrated for the other causes of PI. This study suggests that in unstable patients lactate has the same likelihood of elevation between different causes of instability, but it may not have the same prognostic value for deterioration across underlying causes.
CONSIDER Sepsis Network is a collaboration of clinical researchers with an interest in sepsis at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
- Jones AE, Aborn LS, Kline JA: Severity of emergency department hypotension predicts adverse hospital outcome. Shock. 2004, 22: 410-414. 10.1097/01.shk.0000142186.95718.82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones AE, Stiell IG, Nesbitt LP, Spaite DW, Hasan N, Watts BA, Kline JA: Nontraumatic out-of-hospital hypotension predicts inhospital mortality. Ann Emerg Med. 2004, 43: 106-113. 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2003.08.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sebat F, Musthafa Aa, Johnson D, Kramer Aa, Shoffner D, Eliason M, Henry K, Spurlock B: Effect of a rapid response system for patients in shock on time to treatment and mortality during 5 years. Crit Care Med. 2007, 35: 2568-2575. 10.1097/01.CCM.0000287593.54658.89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shapiro NI, Howell MD, Talmor D, Nathanson LA, Wolfe RE, Weiss JW: Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in emergency department patients with infection. 2005, 45: 524-528.Google Scholar
- Vermeulen RP, Hoekstra M, Nijsten MW, van der Horst IC, van Pelt LJ, Jessurun Ga, Jaarsma T, Zijlstra F, van den Heuvel AF: Clinical correlates of arterial lactate levels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at admission: a descriptive study. Crit Care. 2010, 14: R164-10.1186/cc9253.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.