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Hospital-acquired bloodstream infection: Indian perspective


This is a 1-year prospective study to determine the incidence, source and etiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) in the Indian context. The resistance pattern was also reviewed.


A single-centre prospective study in a 35-bed ICU. HABSI was defined according to current CDC guidelines. HCAP, catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) and skin-related infections causing BSI was also defined according to recent guidelines and analysed.


Out of 332 positive samples, 90 samples (n = 45) were HABSI. The microbiological analysis showed 60% were Gram-negative, 6% were candida and 27% were Gram-positive. The commonest isolate was klebsiella and MRSA was commonest in Gram-positive. The source of HABSI showed CRBSI was the commonest cause at 69%, which correlates with international data. Ventilator-associated pneumonia and CAUTI caused 9.5% BSI respectively. The resistance pattern among Gram-negative bacteria showed multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extreme drug-resistant (XDR) isolates were highest. See Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1 Source
Table 2 Resistance pattern


The incidence of HABSI is 27%. Of this, CRBSI cause 70% and Gram-negative bacteria were commonest with high resistance. This is in contrast to western data where Gram-positive infections are common. Our study highlights need for stringent guidelines for CRBSI prevention.


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Correspondence to R Agrawal.

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Agrawal, R., Varma, A. Hospital-acquired bloodstream infection: Indian perspective. Crit Care 17, P48 (2013).

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  • Resistance Pattern
  • Microbiological Analysis
  • International Data
  • Recent Guideline
  • Indian Context