Skip to main content

Hospital-acquired bloodstream infection: Indian perspective


This is a 1-year prospective study to determine the incidence, source and etiology of hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) in the Indian context. The resistance pattern was also reviewed.


A single-centre prospective study in a 35-bed ICU. HABSI was defined according to current CDC guidelines. HCAP, catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) and skin-related infections causing BSI was also defined according to recent guidelines and analysed.


Out of 332 positive samples, 90 samples (n = 45) were HABSI. The microbiological analysis showed 60% were Gram-negative, 6% were candida and 27% were Gram-positive. The commonest isolate was klebsiella and MRSA was commonest in Gram-positive. The source of HABSI showed CRBSI was the commonest cause at 69%, which correlates with international data. Ventilator-associated pneumonia and CAUTI caused 9.5% BSI respectively. The resistance pattern among Gram-negative bacteria showed multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extreme drug-resistant (XDR) isolates were highest. See Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1 Source
Table 2 Resistance pattern


The incidence of HABSI is 27%. Of this, CRBSI cause 70% and Gram-negative bacteria were commonest with high resistance. This is in contrast to western data where Gram-positive infections are common. Our study highlights need for stringent guidelines for CRBSI prevention.


  1. Richard , et al.: Crit Care Med. 1999, 27: 887-892. 10.1097/00003246-199905000-00020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Valles , et al.: J Infect. 2008, 56: 27-34. 10.1016/j.jinf.2007.10.001

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Agrawal, R., Varma, A. Hospital-acquired bloodstream infection: Indian perspective. Crit Care 17 (Suppl 2), P48 (2013).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Resistance Pattern
  • Microbiological Analysis
  • International Data
  • Recent Guideline
  • Indian Context