Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that are ordinarily found in the human gastrointestinal tract. In critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation, colonization of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) with Candida may occur in 25 to 55% of patients. Nebulized amphotericin B (NAB) is commonly used to eradicate Candida from the LRT, for example as part of selective decontamination of the digestive tract protocols. However, the clinical effectiveness of this approach is unknown. Our aim was to determine the time to eradication of Candida from the LRT in mechanically ventilated ICU patients receiving and not receiving inhalation therapy with NAB.