There is a high incidence of candiduria especially in ICU patients. Candiduria may be a sign of a disseminated candida infection and a marker for increased ICU mortality. However, there is always a dilemma regarding which patient to treat, as in a majority of patients it may only be a colonizer. Moreover, the choice of antifungal drug is also controversial due to low urinary concentration of many antifungal drugs. Hence, it becomes imperative to have knowledge of locally prevalent species to guide treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of candiduria among patients admitted to a medical ICU of an Indian hospital, to perform microbiological characterization and to study their ICU course and outcome.