Clinical review: Alternative vascular access techniques for continuous hemofiltration
© BioMed Central Ltd 2006
Published: 19 September 2006
Obtaining or maintaining vascular access for continuous hemofiltration can sometimes be problematic, especially in the child or adult in multiple organ failure with edema and/or coagulopathy. Problems commonly encountered include obstruction of the femoral vein by the catheter, insertion difficulties, safety concerns when cannulating the subclavian vein in coagulopathy, and catheter and circuit occlusion due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. For access in infants we describe a technique utilizing two single-lumen thin-walled vascular sheaths. For infants and small children initial access to the vein may be difficult due to edema or poor perfusion. For this situation we describe the 'mini-introducer' technique of securing the vein and facilitating subsequent insertion of a relatively large guide wire. At any age an alternative route to the subclavian vein, from above the clavicle, is potentially 'compressible' in the event of hemorrhage during the procedure. We remind the reader of the utility of ultrasound guidance for cannulation of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. And lastly we review the options for venous return via the umbilical vein in infants, and via the antecubital vein in larger children and adults.
Continuous hemofiltration can be administered safely to patients of all sizes, with the possible exception of the tiniest of premature newborns. However, obtaining vascular access can sometimes be problematic, especially in the small child with edema and/or coagulopathy. Problems commonly encountered include: venous obstruction caused by the hemofiltration catheter; difficulty with insertion of a large catheter in a small patient; cannulating the subclavian vein in the face of coagulopathy; and catheter and circuit clotting due to diffuse intravascular coagulation.
The femoral vein of a newborn often cannot accommodate a standard double lumen hemofiltration catheter without near-total occlusion of the vein and subsequent stasis affecting the entire leg; for this we describe a strategy utilizing two single-lumen thin-walled vascular sheaths. For older infants and children access may be difficult due to edema or poor perfusion. For this we describe the mini-introducer technique of percutaneously securing the vein and facilitating insertion of the relatively large guide wire required for passage of the hemofiltration catheter. Subclavian venous access is relatively contraindicated at any age in the face of coagulopathy, but may sometimes be necessary for hemofiltration (or as supplemental venous access). For this we describe an alternative route to the subclavian vein, from above the clavicle, potentially 'compressible' in the event of hemorrhage. We remind the reader of the utility of ultrasound guidance for cannulation of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. And lastly we review the options for venous return via the umbilical vein in infants, and via the antecubital vein in larger children and adults.
Rapid infusion catheter or sheath
Average diameter of veins by age
The double sheath technique can be used for patients of any size. The hemofiltration circuit may be connected directly to the sheath; this configuration permits the most unimpeded flow (up to 850 ml/minute in a 9 Fr sheath). The sheath may also be configured with a side port for the convenience of accessing the system slightly remote from the body; however, a hemostasis valve is in position immediately above the proximal entry point to the sheath, and must be fully secured with an obturator to prevent air embolus. This extra hardware reduces maximum flow possible through the system by as much as 75% if both sidearm and obturator are used ; however, flow will still be adequate for standard hemofiltration. If both femoral veins are chosen as access sites, use introducers of different lengths to minimize recirculation.
Animal data suggest that polyurethane catheters are less likely than silastic to encourage the growth of bacteria in the presence of a fibrin sheath. Fibrin deposition was evident at ten days . Data on the duration of implantation of introducer sheaths are invariably coupled to the use of pulmonary artery catheters. The sheath is often left in place once the pulmonary catheter is removed. In a series of 68 adults with cancer, the mean duration of usage was less than 4 days, but some sheaths were in place up to 18 days. The authors meticulously tracked colonization rates, and found that the sheath was no more likely to be colonized than the pulmonary artery catheter, and that colonization rates were about 14 per 1,000 days; no nosocomial infections were detected .
Manufacturers have recognized the utility of the introducer sheath as a very effective route for intravenous fluid delivery. However, catheters marketed as 'rapid infusion sets' are still just the same sheaths packaged with materials that enable quick placement either over a needle (in the field or in the emergency department) or via the Seldinger technique (in the operating room). Manufacturers have attempted to address the issue of catheter rigidity (and with it the attendant problems of kinking and cracking). The traditional sheath was composed of Teflon, which is stiffer than polyurethane. The Cordis AVANTI®+ Sheath Introducer is designed to be kink-resistant by integrating a soft, flexible inner layer with a stiffer outer layer. The manufacturer (Arrow International Inc. Reading, PA, USA) claims that the catheter will maintain its patency 'even in tortuous anatomy and scar tissue'. The Arrow-Flex® sheath is composed of a polyurethane blend with improved kink resistance.
Likely the most effective innovation on the horizon, however, is a method for integrating wound-wire reinforcement within the wall of the catheter . One commercially available intra-aortic balloon catheter utilizes thicker coiled wire reinforcement, but to date no manufacturer has marketed a thin-walled introducer sheath employing the more refined version of the innovation. Applicability in pediatrics of this and other innovations will be difficult to verify, as there are simply too few appropriate pediatric cases in which to test them. However, the practitioner should be aware that kinking is less of an issue in catheters placed in the subclavian or internal jugular positions, and that improvements in technology are being directed at the problem of sheath kinking.
Mini-introducer insertion technique
Supraclavicular approach to subclavian
For the supraclavicular approach, the patient lies supine with the head turned away from the side of insertion. The operator identifies the lateral aspect of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The needle enters just lateral to the insertion of the muscle, passing under the clavicle from above. The needle is then directed at an angle 45 degrees to the sagittal plane and 15 degrees forward of the coronal plane, in effect remaining shallow in the thorax. The needle should pass only through cervical fascia without danger of piercing the pleura or subclavian artery, both of which should be posterior to the needle's trajectory. The needle enters the subclavian vein close to the confluence of the subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein . The advantages of this approach include less risk of subclavian artery and pleural puncture, better-defined landmarks, and a more consistent angular technique. The subclavian vein may actually be more easily accessed from above the clavicle [8, 9] but the technique has not been widely studied in children.
When compared with standard placement technique guided by anatomical landmarks alone, ultrasound guidance decreases the rate of failure at either the internal jugular or subclavian vein, decreases complications during catheter placement, and decreases the number of attempts at placement [10, 11], particularly in children less than 1 year of age or under 10 kg . Portable devices are commonplace in many intensive care units, and are standard equipment in anesthesia workrooms.
The umbilical vein
Mechanical properties of the umbilical vein are comparable to those described for veins later in life . The umbilical vein has been accessed as a return port for arterio-venous hemofiltration  and presumably could be utilized in veno-venous hemofiltration as well. The umbilical vein has been reported as a re-infusion site during veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, accommodating a catheter as large as 10 Fr. The vessel tolerated return blood flows up to 250 ml/minute at a maximum pressure of 72 mmHg . However, umbilical venous blood withdrawal can have direct impact on cerebral blood flow in preterm infants .
The antecubital vein
The antecubital vein has not been reported as a return site for hemofiltration, but it is routinely accessed for apheresis. The antecubital vein in an adult is 18 mm in diameter, and can expand to 33 mm with maneuvers to increase venous stasis in the arm . The antecubital vein has been reported as a return site for partial veno-venous bypass during liver transplantation, accommodating venous return flow up to 2,400 ml/minute via an 8.5 Fr introducer sheath .
The hypercoagulable patient
Occasionally hemofiltration will be complicated by recurrent clotting of the catheter or hemofilter as a consequence of diffuse intravascular coagulation. This most commonly occurs with bacterial sepsis, or with fulminant hepatic failure, in which case hepatic necrosis is the instigator. If diffuse intravascular coagulation is suspected and circuit or access patency is problematic, a partial or single-volume plasma exchange will likely solve the problem. By inserting a four-way stopcock at the point of connection to the catheter, plasmapheresis can be performed without interrupting hemofiltratrion , but, in the case of circuit issues, it is more likely performed prior to the next attempt at reestablishing the hemofiltration circuit.
Introducer sheaths and mini-introducers
6, 7, 8.5, 9 Fr × 10.5 cm
PSI kit; spring-wire guide: 0.89 mm (0.035") diameter; obturator 
Arrow 8.5 and 9.0 Fr sheath valve assemblies
Arrow short obturator
Cap for hemostasis valve
4, 5, 6 Fr × 5.5–7.5 cm
504-604P through 504-605S
With mini-wire 0.54 mm (0.021") 
Cook Access Plus
6 Fr, 9 Fr
Guide wire 0.46 mm (0.018") 
Guide wire 0.46 mm (0.018"); included in catheter kits 15 Fr
Guide wire 0.54 mm (0.021") 
Bard MicroEZ PTFE Universal Safety Microintroducer Kit
The critical care physician should be able to establish vascular access for patients of any size in need of continuous hemofiltration even in the face of peripheral edema, bleeding diathesis or hypercoagulability. Options for venous access for continuous hemofiltration can be greatly expanded by utilizing introducer sheaths, either as venous output or return lines or as temporary ports for introduction of larger guide wires for insertion of standard hemofiltration catheters. Additional alternatives can be devised by adapting established vascular access techniques for apheresis, surgical veno-venous bypass, and neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
- Steinberg C, Weinstock DJ, Gold JP, Notterman DA: Measurements of central blood vessels in infants and children: normal values. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1992, 27: 197-201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akingbola OA, Nielsen J, Hopkins RL, Frieberg EM: Femoral vein size in newborns and infants: preliminary investigation. Crit Care. 2000, 4: 120-123. 10.1186/cc666.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hyman SA, Smith DW, England R, Naukam R, Berman ML: Pulmonary artery catheter introducers: do the component parts affect flow rate?. Anesth Analg. 1991, 73: 573-575. 10.1213/00000539-199111000-00011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mehall JR, Saltzman DA, Jackson RJ, Smith SD: Catheter materials affect the incidence of late blood-borne catheter infection. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2001, 2: 225-229. 10.1089/109629601317202704.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blot F, Chachaty E, Raynard B, Antoun S, Bourgain JL, Nitenberg G: Mechanisms and risk factors for infection of pulmonary artery catheters and introducer sheaths in cancer patients admitted to an intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2001, 48: 289-297. 10.1053/jhin.2001.1014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brustad JR, Adlparvar P, Aliahmad WR, Applied Medical Resources Corporation, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, et al: Kink-resistant access sheath and method of making same. U.S. Patent 7005026. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued patent database, [http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html]
- Yoffa D: Supraclavicular subclavian venepuncture and catheterisation. Lancet. 1965, 2: 614-617. 10.1016/S0140-6736(65)90519-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nevarre DR, Domingo OH: Supraclavicular approach to subclavian catheterization: review of the literature and results of 178 attempts by the same operator. J Trauma. 1997, 42: 305-309.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dronen S, Thompson B, Nowak R, Tomlanovich M: Subclavian vein catheterization during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A prospective comparison of the supraclavicular and infraclavicular percutaneous approaches. JAMA. 1982, 247: 3227-3230. 10.1001/jama.247.23.3227.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Pribble CG: Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med. 1996, 24: 2053-2058. 10.1097/00003246-199612000-00020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abboud PA, Kendall JL: Ultrasound guidance for vascular access. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004, 22: 749-773. 10.1016/j.emc.2004.04.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leyvi G, Taylor DG, Reith E, Wasnick JD: Utility of ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in pediatric surgical patients: a clinical series. Paediatr Anaesth. 2005, 15: 953-958. 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01609.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hellevik LR, Kiserud T, Irgens F, Stergiopulos N, Hanson M: Mechanical properties of the fetal ductus venosus and umbilical vein. Heart Vessels. 1998, 13: 175-180. 10.1007/BF01745041.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ronco C, Brendolan A, Bragantini L, Chiaramonte S, Feriani M, Fabris A, Dell'Aquila R, La Greca G: Treatment of acute renal failure in newborns by continuous arterio-venous hemofiltration. Kidney Int. 1986, 29: 908-915.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato J, Nagaya M, Niimi N, Tanaka S: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in newborn infants using the umbilical vein as a reinfusion route. J Pediatr Surg. 1998, 33: 1446-1448. 10.1016/S0022-3468(98)90035-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bray M, Stucchi I, Fumagalli M, Pugni L, Ramenghi L, Agosti M, Mosca F: Blood withdrawal and infusion via umbilical catheters: effect on cerebral perfusion and influence of ibuprofen. Biol Neonate. 2003, 84: 187-193. 10.1159/000072301.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nee PA, Picton AJ, Ralston DR, Perks AG: Facilitation of peripheral intravenous access: an evaluation of two methods to augment venous filling. Ann Emerg Med. 1994, 24: 944-946.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oken AC, Frank SM, Merritt WT, Fair J, Klein A, Burdick J, Thompson S, Beattie C: A new percutaneous technique for establishing venous bypass access in orthotopic liver transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1994, 8: 58-60. 10.1016/1053-0770(94)90013-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yorgin PD, Eklund DK, al-Uzri A, Whitesell L, Theodorou AA: Concurrent centrifugation plasmapheresis and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000, 14: 18-21. 10.1007/s004670050004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arrow International. [http://www.arrowintl.com]
- Cordis. [http://www.cordis.com]
- Cook Critical Care. [http://www.cookcriticalcare.com]
- Argon Medical Devices. [http://www.argonmedical.com]
- Enpath Medical. [http://www.enpathmedical.com]
- Bard Access Systems. [http://www.bardaccess.com]