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Table 1 Detailed classification of CAPA cases

From: Corticosteroids as risk factor for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in intensive care patients

  Aspergillus detected by mycological culture from BAL/NBL Antigen detection Radiological signs Clinical signs
A. fumigatus A. niger A. flavus A. nidulans A. terreus Ag Serum Ag BAL/NBL Pulmonary infiltrate Cavitating infiltrate Refractory fever Pleural rub Chest pain Haemoptysis
Proven CAPA (n = 2) 100% (n = 2) 50% (n = 1) 50% (n = 1) 100% (n = 2) 50% (n = 1)
Probable CAPA (n = 29) 76% (n = 22) 10% (n = 3) 3% (n = 1) 3% (n = 1) 6% (n = 2) 66% (n = 19) 100% (n = 29) 6% (n = 2) 86% (n = 25) 3% (n = 1) 41% (n = 12)
Possible CAPA (n = 16) 81% (n = 13) 19% (n = 3) 100% (n = 16) 19% (n = 3) 69% (n = 11) 13% (n = 2)
Aspergillus spp. colonization (n = 18) 78% (n = 14) 6% (n = 1) 12% (n = 2) 24% (n = 4) 94% (n = 17) 6% (n = 1)
  1. A., aspergillus. CAPA, COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage. NBL, non-bronchoscopic lavage. Ag, antigen