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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis

From: Value of variation of end-tidal carbon dioxide for predicting fluid responsiveness during the passive leg raising test in patients with mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author/year of publication Country Location Patients Gender (M/F) Age (year) Mean ± SD Cases Tidal volume (mL/kg) Index test device Reference standard measurement Reference standard threshold (%) Reference standard device
Monge/2012 [18] Spanish ICU Patients with controlled mechanical ventilation and acute circulatory failure 16/21 64 ± 13 37 8.1 ± 1.2 Side stream infrared gas analyzer CO ≥ 15 Cardio Q
Monnet/2013 [17] France ICU Patients ventilated in the control assisted mode with no inspiratory effort and hemodynamic instability NA 60 ± 14 40 6.4 ± 0.8 Side stream infrared gas analyzer CI   15 PiCCO
Zang/2013 [30] China ICU Patients with controlled mechanical ventilation and sepsis shock 22/20 Responder: 56.9 ± 16.6
Nonresponder: 57.7 ± 12.3
42 Responder: 7.5 ± 3.6
Nonresponder: 7.7 ± 2.3
Side stream infrared gas analyzer CI ≥ 15 PiCCO
Wang/2015 [31] China ICU Patients with controlled mechanical ventilation and sepsis shock 24/24 Responder: 52.7 ± 29.4
Nonresponder: 56.7 ± 26.2
48 NA Side stream infrared gas analyzer CI > 10 PiCCO
Toupin/2016 [32] Canada OR Patients receiving mechanical ventilation and undergoing cardiac or ascending aortic surgery 62/28 Responder: 68 ± 10
Nonresponder: 65 ± 10
90 6–8 Side stream infrared gas analyzer CI ≥ 15 PAC
Yao/2016 [33] China ICU Patients with controlled mechanical ventilation and shock post-cardiac surgery 27/14 Responder: 55.4 ± 9.9
Nonresponder: 58.5 ± 9.3
41 8–10 NA CI ≥ 15 PiCCO
  1. CI, cardiac index; CO, cardiac output; SD, standard deviation; ICU, intensive care unit; OR, operation room; Cardio Q, Cardio Q-ODM™ esophageal Doppler monitor. PiCCO, pulse indicator continuous cardiac output; PAC, pulmonary artery catheter; NA, not available