Skip to main content

Table 2 Outcomes

From: Novel protocol combining physical and nutrition therapies, Intensive Goal-directed REhabilitation with Electrical muscle stimulation and Nutrition (IGREEN) care bundle

  IGREEN Standard care p value
n = 56 n = 45
Primary endpoint
 Femoral muscle volume    
  Day1, mL, median (IQR) 3730 (2268, 4573) 3230 (2410, 4640) 0.49
  Day10, mL, median (IQR) 3145 (2298, 4220) 2810 (1960, 4230) 0.38
 Loss from day 1 to 10, % 11.6 (5.9) 14.5 (7.6) 0.03*
Secondary endpoint    
 Rehabilitation    
  IMS 1 achieved, d, median (IQR) 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) 1.0 (1.0, 2.0) 0.54
  IMS 3 achieved, d, median (IQR) 3.0 (2.0, 5.0) 5.0 (3.0, 5.8) 0.01*
  IMS 4 achieved, d, median (IQR) 3.0 (2.0, 6.0) 5.0 (4.0, 7.0) 0.02*
  MRC score, median (IQR) 49.5 (23.0, 58.0) 55.0 (37.0, 60.0) 0.26
  Grip strength, kg, median (IQR) 14.1 (0.0, 20.1) 15.0 (0.0, 24.0) 0.8
  FSS-ICU, median (IQR) 9.0 (3.0, 19.0) 9.5 (1.0, 19.5) 0.99
  Barthel Index, median (IQR) 52.5 (5.0, 93.8) 70.0 (0.0, 100.0) 0.64
 Nutrition    
  Mean calorie delivery, kcal/kg/day 20.1 (5.7) 16.6 (5.6) < 0.01*
  Mean protein delivery, g/kg/day 1.4 (0.4) 0.8 (0.3) < 0.01*
  Cumulative nitrogen balance − 27.8 (44.8) − 42.1 (57.1) 0.16
  EN failure, n (%) 4 (7.1) 4 (8.9) 1
 Treatment    
  Survival discharge, n (%) 50 (89.3) 39 (86.7) 0.92
  Length of hospital stay, d, median (IQR) 29.0 (14.0, 63.0) 23.0 (16.0, 35.0) 0.27
  Length of ICU stay, d, median (IQR) 6.0 (4.0, 9.0) 5.0 (4.0, 8.0) 0.59
  MV use, n (%) 44 (78.6) 34 (75.6) 0.9
  Duration of MV, d, median (IQR) 3.0 (1.0, 5.0) 2.0 (1.0, 5.0) 0.33
  RRT use, n (%) 13 (23.2) 12 (26.7) 0.87
  Steroid dose, mg, median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0, 600.0) 0.0 (0.0, 600.0) 0.67
  NMBA use, n (%) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.82
 N-titin/Cre, pmol/mgCre    
  Mean, median (IQR) 96.3 (41.1, 181.5) 46.2 (21.9, 87.5) < 0.01*
  Change, median (IQR) − 27.2 (− 166.7, − 1.0) 4.5 (− 26.1, 28.7) < 0.01*
 Laboratory data on day 10    
  BUN, mg/dL, median (IQR) 36.6 (26.3, 50.7) 27.6 (17.6, 40.8) 0.02*
  Creatinine, mg/dL, median (IQR) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.9 (0.6, 1.6) 0.94
  Albumin, mg/dL, median (IQR) 2.8 (0.7) 2.6 (0.5) 0.25
  TLC, /mm3, median (IQR) 1188 (808, 1634) 1125 (803, 1531) 0.5
  CRP, mg/dL, median (IQR) 2.5 (0.7, 6.0) 2.7 (1.0, 5.1) 0.62
  1. Data are shown as means (SD) unless otherwise noted
  2. ICU intensive care unit, MRC Medical Research Council, FSS-ICU functional status score for the intensive care unit, EN enteral nutrition, MV mechanical ventilation, RRT renal replacement therapy, NMBA neuromuscular blocking agent, N-titin/Cre titin N-fragment in urine divided by urine creatinine, BUN blood urea nitrogen, Cre creatinine, TLC total lymphocyte count, CRP C-reactive protein
  3. *p < 0.05, Total dose of a hydrocortisone equivalent within 10 days