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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and their association to hospital survival

From: Long-term survival and health-related quality of life in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support

  All
(n = 289)
Status after index hospitalisation p value
  Alive
(n = 129, 44.6%)
Dead
(n = 160, 55.4%)
Demographics
 Age (y) 55 (43–64) 53 (41.5–59.5) 56 (45–66.8) 0.027
 Sex (male) 194 (67.1%) 89 (69%) 105 (65.6%) 0.545
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.5 (23.4–29.3) 24.5 (22.9–30.2) 24.4 (23.5–27.8) 0.610
Underlying pulmonary disease 87 (30.1%) 32 (24.8%) 55 (34.4%) 0.078
 COPD 25 (8.7%) 11 (8.5%) 14 (8.8%) 0.947
 Asthma 16 (5.5%) 7 (5.4%) 9 (5.6%) 0.941
 Lung fibrosis 26 (9%) 2 (1.6%) 24 (15%)  < 0.001
 Cystic fibrosis 7 (2.4%) 1 (0.8%) 6 (3.8%) 0.102
 LTOT 14 (4.8%) 3 (2.3%) 11 (6.9%) 0.073
 Pulmonary hypertension 8 (2.8%) 1 (0.8%) 7 (4.4%) 0.064
Comorbidities
 Nicotine abuse 98 (33.9%) 50 (38.8%) 48 (30%) 0.118
 Hypertension 99 (34.3%) 49 (38%) 50 (31.3%) 0.230
 Diabetes mellitus 39 (13.5%) 17 (13.2%) 22 (13.8%) 0.888
 CAD 36 (12.5%) 13 (10.1%) 23 (14.4%) 0.271
Chronic renal failure 21 (7.3%) 8 (6.2%) 13 (8.1%) 0.531
 Chronic haemodialysis 2 (9.1%) 1 (12.5%) 1 (7.1%) 0.674
 Liver cirrhosis 22 (7.6%) 4 (3.1%) 18 (11.3%) 0.009
 Immunosuppression 89 (30.8%) 24 (18.6%) 65 (40.6%)  < 0.001
Oxygenation pre-ECMO     
 FiO2 (%) 1 (0.8–1) 1 (0.8–1) 1 (0.8–1) 0.271
 Horowitz index (mmHg) 72.5 (60.5–98.8) 77.1 (62.1–107) 70 (59.3–95.7) 0.256
 D (A-a)O2 (mmHg) 556 (422.8–596.8) 550 (385.5–591.8) 570 (442.3–598) 0.115
Duration of MV before ECMO (d) 1.2 (0.3–3.5) 1.1 (0.2–3) 1.3 (0.3–5.3) 0.341
 < 2 d 161 (59.6%) 76 (62.3%) 85 (57.4%) 0.418
 2–7 d 69 (25.6%) 30 (24.6%) 39 (26.4%) 0.741
 > 7 d 40 (14.8%) 16 (13.1%) 24 (16.2%) 0.475
 Acute renal failure 95 (32.9%) 46 (35.7%) 49 (30.6%) 0.365
Scores
 SOFA score 13 (10–15) 12 (10–15) 13 (10–16) 0.439
 APACHE-II score 26 (20.5–32) 25 (19–31) 27 (22–33) 0.022
 RESP score 1 (-2–3) 2 (-0.5–4) 1 (-2–3) 0.006
Causes of ARDS
 Pneumonia 206 (71.3%) 89 (69%) 117 (73.1%) 0.440
 Aspiration 25 (8.7%) 10 (7.8%) 15 (9.4%) 0.626
 Other injuries 58 (20.1%) 30 (23.3%) 28 (17.5%) 0.225
Pulmonary pathogen spectrum
 Bacterial 120 (41.5%) 67 (51.9%) 53 (33.1%) 0.001
 Viral 91 (31.5%) 44 (34.1%) 47 (29.4%) 0.389
 Fungal 56 (19.4%) 16 (12.4%) 40 (25%) 0.007
 Pneumocystis jirovecii 19 (6.6%) 4 (3.1%) 15 (9.4%) 0.032
Procedural characteristics and outcome
 ICU length of stay (d) 13.5 (9–23.5) 17.9 (11.7–32.8) 11.1 (5.5–18.9)  < 0.001
 ECMO duration (d) 6.7 (3.9–12.1) 6.6 (4.4–11.5) 6.8 (3.3–13.2) 0.903
 MV duration (d) 12.5 (7.6–22.4) 14.5 (9.5–30.2) 10.9 (5.3–19.4)  < 0.001
 Dual-lumen cannula 245 (84.8%) 115 (89.1%) 130 (81.3%) 0.063
 Primary non-IMV ECMO 18 (6.2%) 6 (4.7%) 12 (7.5%) 0.319
 Tracheostomy 111 (38.4%) 62 (48.1%) 49 (30.6%) 0.002
 Haemodialysis 109 (37.7%) 47 (36.4%) 62 (38.8%) 0.686
  1. p values < 0.05 are presented in bold
  2. APACHE II score: Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; BMI: body mass index; CAD: coronary artery disease; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen; ICU: intensive care unit; IMV: invasive mechanical ventilation; LTOT: long-term oxygen therapy; MV: mechanical ventilation; RESP score: Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction; SOFA score: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment