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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii research according to C-ARDS and NC-ARDS patients

From: Pneumocystis pneumonia risk among viral acute respiratory distress syndrome related or not to COVID 19

  NC-ARDS (n = 39) C-ARDS (n = 81) p-value
Age, median [IQR] 61.8 [56.1–69.3] 58 [52–69.5] 0.32
Male gender 28 (72%) 65 (80%) 0.30
Medical history
 Mc Cabe     < 0.0001
  No underlying condition 13 (33%) 70 (86%)  
  Ultimately fatal 16 (41%) 10 (12%)  
  Rapidly fatal disease 10 (26%) 1 (1%)  
 Charlson comorbidity index 3 [2–4] 1 [0–2]  < 0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus 11 (28%) 38 (47%) 0.051
 Congestive heart failure (NYHA 3–4) 3 (8%) 6 (7%)  > 0.99
 Supraventricular arrhythmia 5 (13%) 8 (10%) 0.76
 Hypertension 16 (41%) 52 (64%) 0.016
 COPD 2 (5%) 8 (10%) 0.50
 Chronic renal failure 8 (21%) 13 (16%) 0.55
 Dialysis 3 (8%) 2 (3%) 0.33
 Stroke 1 (3%) 3 (4%)  > 0.99
 Liver cirrhosis (Child C) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 0.33
 Current smoking 8 (21%) 21 (26%) 0.52
Immunosuppression conditions
 Overall 32 (82%) 13 (16%)  < 0.0001
 Solid cancer 2 (5%) 4 (5%)  > 0.99
 Blood cancer 15 (38%) 0 (0%)  < 0.0001
 Organ transplant 9 (23%) 5 (6%) 0.013
 HIV infection 3 (8%) 3 (4%) 0.39
 Sickle cell disease 1 (3%) 3 (4%)  > 0.99
 Others 4 (10%) 1 (1%) 0.038
Clinical characteristics upon ICU admission
 IGS2 51 [37–68] 35 [27–43]  < 0.0001
 Baseline SOFA, median [IQR] 9 [6–12] 7 [4–8]  < 0.0001
 ARDS classification (Berlin definition)    0.046
  Mild 12 (31%) 10 (12%)  
  Moderate 18 (46%) 44 (54%)  
  Severe 9 (23%) 27 (33%)  
 Norepinephrine, n (%) 20 (51.3%) 35 (43.2%) 0.41
 Serum creatinine (µmol/L) 147 [83–226] 82 [66–124] 0.001
 White blood cell count (× 109/L) 5.4 [3–14.8] 8.1 [5.5–11.9] 0.44
 Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 0.4 [0.2–0.9] 0.8 [0.5–1.2] 0.01
 Documented bacterial co-infections 18 (46%) 13 (16%) < 0.0001
Treatments during the first 24 h
 Antibiotics 39 (100%) 81 (100%)  > 0.99
 Antiviral treatment 26 (67%) 65 (80%) 0.10
 Corticosteroids (any dose) 21/38 (55%) 10/79 (13%)*  < 0.0001
 Corticosteroids (low dose) 20/38 (53%) 8/79 (10%)*  < 0.0001
 Corticosteroids (high dose) # 1/38 (3%) 2/79 (3%)*  > 0.99
ARDS treatment during ICU stay
 Corticosteroids (any dose) 24 (63%) 32 (41%)* 0.02
 Corticosteroids (low dose) 22 (58%) 22 (28%)* 0.002
 Corticosteroids (high dose) # 2 (5%) 10 (13%)* 0.22
 Prone position 20 (51%) 71 (88%)  < 0.0001
 Neuromuscular blockade 25 (64%) 74 (91%)  < 0.0001
 Inhaled nitric oxide 6 (15%) 28 (35%) 0.03
 Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation 5 (13%) 20 (25%) 0.13
Organ support and outcome during ICU stay
 Renal replacement therapy during ICU stay 19 (49%) 29 (36%) 0.18
 Norepinephrine, n (%) 32 (82%) 61 (75%) 0.41
 ICU length of stay among survivors, days 17 [10–28] 30 [22–46] 0.09
 Death at day 28 15 (39%) 30 (37%) 0.88
 Death in the ICU 17 (44%) 32 (40%) 0.67
Pneumocystis jirovecii samples and analysis
 Total samples, mean (range) 1.5 (1–4) 3.8 (1–15)  < 0.001
 Sputum examination, mean (range) 0.08 (0–1) 0 0.01
 Broncho-alveolar lavage, mean (range) 1.5 (0–4) 0.19 (0–2) < 0.001
 Blind protected sample, mean (range) 0 3.6 (1–15)  < 0.001
 Direct examination (IF or MGG) 1.5 (0–4) 0.19 (0–2)  < 0.001
 qPCR 1.5 (1–4) 3.8 (1–15)  < 0.001
 Serum (1–3)-BDG 0.5 (0–4) 4 (1–10)  < 0.001
  1. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV = human immunodeficiency virus, SAPS II = Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SOFA = sequential organ failure assessment, ICU = intensive care unit; *two missing values because two patients received dexamethasone or placebo in a randomized controlled trial; #denotes more than 1 mg/kg of prednisone or equivalent