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Table 1 Overall subject baseline characteristics and comparison between the early and late awake prone positioning group

From: Early versus late awake prone positioning in non-intubated patients with COVID-19

Variables Overall
(n = 125)
Early awake prone
(n = 92)
Late awake prone
(n = 33)
P value
Age, mean (SD) 62.0 ± 11.9 61.1 ± 12.3 64.9 ± 10.4 0.113
Male, n (%) 79 (63.2) 56 (61) 23 (67) 0.367
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 30 ± 5.0 30.23 ± 4.96 29.47 ± 5.14 0.411
Ethnicity, n (%)
Hispanic/Latino 70 (56) 59 (64.1) 11 (33.3) 0.002
Caucasian 37 (29.6) 22 (23.9) 15 (45.5) 0.027
African American 7 (5.6) 5 (5.4) 2 (6.1) 0.59
Asian 4 (3.2) 2 (2.2) 2 (6.1) 0.28
Unknown 3 (2.4) 1(1.1) 2 (6.1) 0.17
Others 4 (3.2) 3 (3.3) 1 (3) 0.60
Comorbidities, n (%)
Diabetes Mellitus 54 (43.2) 17 (51.5) 37 (40.2) 0.261
Chronic Lung Disease 17 (13.6) 10 (11) 7 (21) 0.119
Cardiovascular Disease 29 (23.2) 18 (19.6) 11 (33.3) 0.108
Chronic Renal Disease 11 (8.8) 10 (10.9) 1 (3) 0.157
Chronic Liver Disease 1 (0.8) 1 (1.1) 0 0.736
Immunocompromised Condition 16 (12.8) 11 (12) 5 (15) 0.637
Neurologic disease 5 (4) 4 (4.3) 1 (3) 0.603
Others 25 (20) 23 (25) 2 (6.1) 0.020
Smoking status, n (%)     0.12
Current Smoker 4 (3.2) 4 (4.3) 0  
Former Smoker 38 (30.4) 23 (25) 15 (45.5)  
Never 73 (58.4) 57 (62) 16 (48.5)  
Not available 10 (8) 8 (8.7) 2 (6)  
SOFA score on admission, median (IQR) 3 (2–4.5) 3 (2–4.75) 3 (3–4.5) 0.70
Assigned to APP group, n (%) 101 (80.8) 88 (96) 13 (39)  
SpO2/FiO2 ratio on enrollment, median (IQR) 143.8 (117.5–174.4) 135 (116.2–166.5) 155 (131.6–188.5) 0.052
Time from hospital admission to APP start (h), median (IQR) 27.48 (13.1–64.2) 18 (7.1–43.2) 60 (34.9–105) <0.001
Time from HFNC start to APP (h), median (IQR) 8.58 (1.31–24.87) 2.25 (0.8–12.82) 36.35 (30.2–75.23) <0.001
Total APP hours in the first three days, median (IQR) 13.08 (3.5–43.25) 16 (5.4–51.5) 5 (2.5–17.5) 0.004
APP hours/day, median (IQR) 4.45 (1.75–8.37) 5.07 (2–9.05) 3 (1.09–5.64) 0.006
HFNC duration (d), median (IQR) 6 (2.97–9.46) 5 (2.2–9) 6 (3.2–10.5) 0.18
Antiviral therapy, n (%) 84 (67.2) 65 (70.7) 19 (57.6) 0.12
Steroids use, n (%) 93 (74.4) 64 (69.6) 29 (87.9) 0.039
Time from HFNC start to steroid start (h), median (IQR) − 12.48 (− 25.3 to 4.58) − 14.47 (− 33 to 0) − 8.57 (− 20.8 to 7. 93)  0.19
Steroids type, n (%)
Dexamethasone 82 (65.6) 56 (60.9) 26 (78.8) 0.063
Hydrocortisone 18 (14.4) 13 (14.1) 5 (15.1) 0.54
Methylprednisone/Prednisone 15 (12) 10 (10.9) 5 (15.1) 0.35
  1. SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, IQR interquartile range, SpO2 saturation of pulse oximetry, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, HFNC High-Flow Nasal Cannula, APP Awake Prone Positioning