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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population—distribution at ICU admission

From: Antifungal prophylaxis for prevention of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill patients: an observational study

Variable n (%miss) Overall (n = 132) Antifungal prophylaxis (n = 75) No antifungal prophylaxis (n = 57) p pIPTW
Demographic variables
Age (years) 132 (0%) 65 [55–75] 67 [55–74] 63 [56–75] 0.879 0.375
Female Gender 132 (0%) 48 (36%) 24 (32%) 24 (42%) 0.232 0.632
BMI (kg/m2) 127 (4%) 28.6 [25.4–33.2] 27.8 [24.5–32.8] 29.6 [25.9–33.7] 0.139 0.285
Coexisting conditions
Number of coexisting conditions 132 (0%) 2 [1–4] 2 [1–3] 2 [1–4] 0.629 0.640
Hypertension 132 (0%) 93 (71%) 49 (65%) 44 (77%) 0.186 0.562
Diabetes 132 (0%) 31 (23%) 20 (27%) 11 (19%) 0.323 0.454
Atrial fibrillation 132 (0%) 22 (17%) 10 (13%) 12 (21%) 0.238 0.400
Coronary artery disease$ 132 (0%) 21 (16%) 9 (12%) 12 (21%) 0.159 0.686
Congestive heart failure 132 (0%) 20 (15%) 9 (12%) 11 (19%) 0.247 0.763
Peripheral arterial disease 132 (0%) 17 (13%) 7 (9%) 10 (17%) 0.163 0.171
Thromboembolic disease 132 (0%) 19 (14%) 10 (13%) 9 (16%) 0.690 0.230
Chronic kidney disease 132 (0%) 35 (26%) 15 (20%) 20 (35%) 0.052 0.892
Dialysis 132 (0%) 11 (8%) 2 (3%) 9 (16%) 0.007 0.656
COPD 132 (0%) 16 (12%) 13 (17%) 3 (5%) 0.035 0.867
Asthma 132 (0%) 15 (11%) 9 (12%) 6 (11%) 0.792 0.702
Prior cancer in complete remission 132 (0%) 11 (8%) 6 (8%) 5 (8%) 0.874 0.917
Active malignancy 132 (0%) 9 (7%) 6 (8%) 3 (5%) 0.537 0.644
Dementia 132 (0%) 4 (3%) 2 (3%) 2 (4%) 0.780 0.844
Prior transplantation 132 (0%) 10 (8%) 7 (9%) 3 (5%) 0.381 0.821
Immunosuppression † 132 (0%) 17 (13%) 13 (17%) 4 (8%) 0.008 0.921
ICU risk stratification
SOFA (points) 132 (0%) 5 [4–8] 4 [4–7] 5 [4–10] 0.057 0.987
paO2/FiO2 128 (3%) 95 [75–146] 90 [75–130] 107 [75–152] 0.302 0.749
PEEP (mmHg)—maximum 111 (16%) 11 [9–12] 10 [9–12] 11 [10–12] 0.599 0.464
Acute respiratory failure grade (inspired by ARDS Berlin 2015 -classification) 132 (0%) 0.660 0.636
–severe   76 (58%) 46 (61%) 30 (54%)  
–moderate   45 (34%) 24 (32%) 21 (37%)  
–mild   10 (8%) 5 (7%) 6 (9%)  
Ventilation 132 (0%) 0.146 0.776
–Intubated   59 (45%) 35 (47%) 24 (42%)  
–vvECMO   13 (10%) 6 (8%) 7 (12%)  
–NIV   49 (37%) 31 (41%) 18 (32%)  
–HFNC   4 (3%) 2 (3%) 2 (3%)  
–Mask oxygen supply   7 (5%) 1 (1%) 6 (11%)  
Any invasive ventilation   72 (56%) 41 (55%) 31 (54%) 0.974 0.947
Antimycotic substances
Duration form diagnosis to initiation (days) 75 (0%) 4 [1–7]  
Antimycotic drug used 75 (0%)  
–Posaconazole   73 (98%)  
–Isavuconazole   1(1%)  
–Caspofungin   1(1%)  
Laboratory values
Lactate (mmol/l) 127 (4%) 1.2 [0.9–1.9] 1.2 [0.9–1.9] 1.4 [0.9–1.9] 0.980 0.462
IL-6 (pg/ml) 114 (14%) 83 [28–258] 76 [28–185] 89 [29–258] 0.448 0.907
CRP (mg/l) 130 (2%) 112 [70–177] 113 [76–196] 112[58–151] 0.237 0.573
Ferritin (ng/ml) 113 (13%) 1334 [635–2196] 1459 [755–2164] 1128 [493–2306] 0.361 0.240
hs-TnT (pg/ml) 119 (10%) 24 [11–61] 22 [11–58] 27 [11–92] 0.488 0.889
D-Dimer (mg/l) 121 (8%) 1.8 [0.9–4.7] 1.5 [0.9–3.4] 2.4 [1.1–7.7] 0.134 0.343
Creatine (mg/dl) 132 (0%) 1.1 [0.81–1.42] 1.0 [0.8–1.4] 1.2 [0.8–1.7] 0.139 0.998
Bilirubin total (mg/dl) 132 (0%) 0.5 [0.4–0.7] 0.5 [0.4–0.7] 0.5 [0.4–0.7] 0.774 0.784
SARS-CoV-2-Antibody status at ICU admission 132 (0%) 0.612 0.617
–positive   35 (27%) 20 (27%) 15 (26%)
–negative   33 (25%) 21 (27%) 12 (21%)
–not available   64 (48%) 34 (46%) 30 (52%)
Blood counts
Leukocytes [G/l] 132 (0%) 9.4 [6.8–13.3] 9.4 [7.0–13.4] 9.2 [6.4–13.3] 0.646 0.606
Neutrophils [G/l] 132 (0%) 8.4 [6.0–11.6] 8.3 [6.0–11.6] 9.2 [6.0–11.9] 0.834 0.322
Lymphocytes [G/l] 131 (1%) 0.7 [0.5–0.9] 0.8 [0.5–1.0] 0.6 [0.5–0.9] 0.299 0.340
Thrombocytes [G/l] 132 (0%) 221 [158–309] 240 [161–335] 208 [152–293] 0.164 0.834
Specific Medication
Glucocorticoids § 132 (0%) 132 (100%) 75 (100%) 57 (100%) 1.000 1.000
Remdesivir 132 (0%) 53 (40%) 36 (48%) 17 (30%) 0.035 0.555
Tocilizumab 132 (0%) 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 0.382 0.326
Convalescent Plasma 132 (0%) 50 (38%) 32 (43%) 18 (32%) 0.193 0.871
Outcomes
CAPA 132 (0%)     0.008 0.015
–probable CAPA 9 (7%) 1 (1%) 8 (14%)   
–possible CAPA 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%)   
Deceased at data cut off 132 (0%) 65 (49%) 39 (52%) 26 (46%) 0.467
Length of ICU stay 132 (0%) 13 [5–25] 13 [6–24] 12 [4–25] 0.700
  1. Data are reported as medians [25th‐75th percentile] or as absolute counts (%)
  2. p denotes p values before ITPW weighting, pIPTW denotes p values after IPTW adjustment
  3. p values are either from rank‐sum tests, χ2‐tests, or Fisher's exact tests, as appropriate
  4. The discrepancy between missing variable regarding pO2/FiO2 and ARDS classification inspired by the Berlin 2015 classification arises from missing exact pO2/FiO2 values; however, ARDS was classified
  5. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index; ICU intensive care unit; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SOFA sequential organ failure assessment; PEEP positive end expiratory pressure; vvECMO veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, NIV non-invasive ventilation, HFNC high flow nasal cannula; IL-6 interleukin 6; CRP C- reactive protein; hs-TnT high sensitive troponin T, SARS-CoV2 severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2; CAPA coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis
  6. $ documented coronary heart disease either by specific coronary imaging or coronary angiography
  7. comprises immunosuppressive medication (low dose of glucocorticoids are excluded) as well as diseases with severe immunosuppression
  8. § Glucocorticoids included low-dose dexamethasone or equivalent doses of other glucocorticoids