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Table 3 Conditions affecting respiratory variability

From: Breathing variability—implications for anaesthesiology and intensive care

Factor Reference Respiratory measurements Measure of variability  
Age Tobin et al. [26] Inductive plethysmography CV Young versus old subjects:
RR: 0.16 versus 0.17
TV: 0.22 versus 0.28*
MV: 0.22 versus 0.27*
IT: 0.19 versus 0.21
  Peng et al. [11] Inductive plethysmography DFA (α) Healthy young versus healthy elderly subjects (male):
BT: 0.68 ± 0.07 versus 0.60 ± 0.08*
Healthy young versus healthy elderly subjects (female):
BT: 0.70 ± 0.07 versus 0.67 ± 0.06
Sleep Hudgel et al. [16] Nasal CPAP mask, pneumotachography CV Awake versus NREM sleep (elderly):
TV: 0.24 ± 0.04 versus 0.25 ± 0.04
MV: 0.20 ± 0.02 versus 0.25 ± 0.05
IT: 0.15 ± 0.02 versus 0.11 ± 0.01
BT: 0.15 ± 0.02 versus 0.10 ± 0.05*
Awake versus NREM sleep (young):
TV: 0.23 ± 0.04 versus 0.11 ± 0.02*
MV: 0.14 ± 0.02 versus 0.10 ± 0.11
IT: 0.17 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.01*
BT: 0.16 ± 0.02 versus 0.08 ± 0.01*
  Rostig et al. [17] Full-face mask, pneumotachography CV NREM versus REM sleep:
TV: 0.11 ± 0.01 versus 0.28 ± 0.08*
MV: 0.11 ± 0.03 versus 0.21 ± 0.09*
RR: 0.09 ± 0.03 versus 0.20 ± 0.04*
IT: 0.10 ± 0.02 versus 0.15 ± 0.03
    DFA, STC (α1) TV: 0.89 ± 0.09 versus 1.18 ± 0.14
MV: 0.96 ± 0.10 versus 1.18 ± 0.16
RR: 0.79 ± 0.06 versus 0.95 ± 0.14
IT: 0.68 ± 0.04 versus 0.76 ± 0.10
    DFA, LTC (α2) TV: 0.51 ± 0.09 versus 0.81 ± 0.15
MV: 0.51 ± 0.09 versus 0.77 ± 0.13
RR: 0.57 ± 0.05 versus 0.85 ± 0.12
IT: 0.55 ± 0.07 versus 0.76 ± 0.11
Hypertension Anderson et al. [30] Inductive plethysmography RMSSD Lower versus upper tertile of blood pressure:
TV: 147 ± 38 versus 219 ± 22*
MV: 1.84 ± 0.32 versus 1.91 ± 0.46*
RR: 3.56 ± 0.50 versus 4.72 ± 0.73*
Children with anxiety disorder Pine et al. [32] Spirometry and respiratory canopy SD Anxiety disorder versus normal controls:
TV: 98 ± 101 versus 39 ± 27*
MV: 2.0 ± 2.0 versus 0.8 ± 0.4*
RR: data not reported, P = 0.06
Panic disorder Martinez et al. [34] Spirometry and respiratory canopy SD Panic disorder versus normal controls:
TV: 191 ± 184 versus 84 ± 43*
MV: 2.36 ± 1.80 versus 1.37 ± 0.68*
RR: 4.59 ± 2.75 versus 3.58 ± 2.43
    MSSD TV: 308 ± 358 versus 144 ± 152*
MV: 4.27 ± 5.05 versus 2.12 ± 1.84*
RR: 6.90 ± 7.75 versus 5.38 ± 5.13
  Yeragani et al. [36] Inductance plethysmography CV Panic disorder versus normal controls:
TV: 0.54 ± 0.22 versus 0.33 ± 0.15 (standing)*
RR: 0.39 ± 0.17 versus 0.45 ± 0.10
TV: 0.23 ± 0.10 versus 0.32 ± 0.27 (supine)
RR: 0.29 ± 0.12 versus 0.32 ± 0.11
    LLE Panic disorder versus normal controls:
0.10 ± 0.01 versus 0.086 ± 0.02 (standing)*
0.09 ± 0.02 versus 0.09 ± 0.02 (supine)
    ApEn Panic disorder versus normal controls:
0.40 ± 0.13 versus 0.27 ± 0.12 (standing)*
0.30 ± 0.0 versus 0.29 ± 0.12 (supine)
Cognitive load Vlemincx et al. [21] Inductance plethysmography CV Complex arithmetic task versus baseline:
TV: 0.36 ± 0.16 versus 0.24 ± 0.14*
MV: 0.26 ± 0.08 versus 0.20 ± 0.08*
RR: 0.18 ± 0.08 versus 0.16 ± 0.07
    AR Complex arithmetic task versus baseline:
TV: 0.11 ± 0.23 versus 0.20 ± 0.18*
MV: 0.30 ± 0.24 versus 0.28 ± 0.18
RR: 0.12 ± 0.15 versus 0.26 ± 0.20*
  Grassmann et al. [22] Nasal capnometry CV High demanding mental multi-task versus baseline:
RR: 0.13 ± 0.05 versus 0.19 ± 0.09*
    AR High demanding mental multi-task versus baseline:
RR: 0.05 ± 0.11 versus 0.13 ± 0.18*
COPD Loveridge et al. [37] Inductance plethysmography CV COPD versus normal controls:
TV 0.253 versus 0.337*
MV 0.221 versus 0.280*
RR 0.170 versus 0.220
IT 0.178 versus 0.229*
Asthma Hmeidi et al. [38] Structured light plethysmography IQR Asthma (prebronchodilator) versus normal controls:
RR: 3.93 (2.57) versus 3.32 (2.2)
IE50: 0.63 (0.32) versus 0.47 (0.18)*
Asthma (prebronchodilator) versus asthma (postbronchodilator):
RR 3.93 (2.57) versus 4.62 (2.34)
IE50: 0.63 (0.32) versus 0.60 (0.38)*
Asthma Seppa et al. [39] Impedance pneumography CSRmin High-risk group versus low-risk group:
Flow-volume curve 0.995 [0.984–0.999] versus 0.998 [0.994–0.999]*
    NLmin High-risk group versus low-risk group:
Flow signal 14.3 [0.00–48.7] versus 30.3 [0.00–42.7]*
Restrictive lung disease Brack et al. [42] Inductance plethysmography CV Restrictive lung disease versus normal controls:
TV 0.22 ± 0.05 versus 0.50 ± 0.20*
IT 0.22 ± 0.05 versus 0.33 ± 0.12*
ET 0.22 ± 0.07 versus 0.41 ± 0.19*
MV 0.24 ± 0.06 versus 0.42 ± 0.16*
    AR TV 0.43 ± 0.14 versus 0.23 ± 0.12*
IT 0.25 ± 0.17 versus 0.21 ± 0.14
ET 0.28 ± 0.13 versus 0.12 ± 0.15*
MV 0.39 ± 0.16 versus 0.27 ± 0.14
Lung dysmaturity in infancy Fouzas et al. [43] Full face mask, flowmeter CV Preterm non-CLDI infants versus term infants:
TV 0.09 ± 0.03 versus 0.09 ± 0.02
Preterm moderate/severe CLDI versus term infants:
TV 0.07 ± 0.02 versus 0.09 ± 0.02*
    2D dispersion, Poincaré Preterm non-CLDI infants versus term infants:
TV 147 ± 82.2 versus 143 ± 64.3
Preterm moderate/severe CLDI versus term infants:
TV 58.9 ± 40.7 versus 143 ± 64.3*
    3D dispersion, Poincaré Preterm non-CLDI infants versus term infants:
TV 1156 ± 906 versus 1073 ± 670
Preterm moderate/severe CLDI versus term infants:
TV 284 ± 253 versus 1073 ± 670*
  Usemann et al. [44] Full face mask, flowmeter CV Preterm versus term infants:
Rint 20.2 ± 8.4 versus 29.6 ± 14.9*
After major abdominal surgery Van den Bosch et al. [56] Impedance pneumography CV RR versus TV: 0.21 ± 0.06 versus 0.37 ± 0.12*
TV versus MV: 0.37 ± 0.12 versus 0.41 ± 0.12*
Organ dysfunction syndrome in ICU Bradley et al. [63] Capnography CV Before versus after sedation interruption, low MODS:
RR 0.17 ± 0.08 versus 0.28 ± 0.16*
Before versus after sedation interruption, high MODS:
RR 0.23 ± 0.12 versus 0.20 ± 0.12
    RMSSD Before versus after sedation interruption, low MODS:
RR 0.86 ± 0.53 versus 1.7 ± 1.3
Before versus after sedation interruption, high MODS:
RR 1.3 ± 0.79 versus 1.0 ± 0.79*
    ApEn Before versus after sedation interruption, low MODS:
RR 0.48 ± 0.16 versus 0.46 ± 0.15
Before versus after sedation interruption, high MODS:
RR 0.42 ± 0.16 versus 0.49 ± 0.17*
    DFA, STC (α1) Before versus after sedation interruption, low MODS:
RR 0.64 ± 0.19 versus 0.70 ± 0.15
Before versus after sedation interruption, high MODS:
RR 0.69 ± 0.09 versus 0.68 ± 0.17
    DFA, LTC (α2) Before versus after sedation interruption, low MODS:
RR 1.17 ± 0.78 versus 0.33 ± 0.41
Before versus after sedation interruption, high MODS:
RR 0.25 ± 0.22 versus 0.40 ± 0.35*
  1. CV coefficient of variation, TV tidal volume, MV minute ventilation, IT inspiratory time, BT breath time, RR respiratory rate, DFA detrended fluctuation analysis, STC short-term correlations, LTC long-term correlations, (R)MSSD (root) mean square of successive differences, SD standard deviation, LLE largest Lyapunov exponent (a measure of chaos), ApEn approximate entropy (a measure of regularity), AR autocorrelation at one breath lag, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IE50 thoracoabdominal displacement rate at 50% of inspiratory displacement divided by thoracoabdominal expiratory displacement date at 50% of expiratory displacement, CSRmin minimum curve shape correlation, NLmin minimum noise limit, ET expiratory time, CLDI chronic lung disease of infancy Rint airway resistance with interrupter technique, MODS multiple organ dysfunction syndrome* P < 0.05