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Table 1 Characteristics of patients and parameters on the day of the dual-energy computed tomography scan

From: Lung distribution of gas and blood volume in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a quantitative dual-energy computed tomography study

  All (N = 35) Non-invasive (N = 12) Invasive (N = 23) p
Age 59 [55–64] 58 [55–62] 60 [53–67] 0.694
Sex (male), n (%) 30 10 20  
Weight (kg) 80 [75–96] 90 [85–96] 80 [73–95] 0.173
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28 [25–31] 28 [28–31] 28 [24–32] 0.521
Days since onset of symptoms 19 [16–31] 18 [16–19] 25 [15–35] 0.045*
Days since first confirmed swab 16 [9–22] 12 [9–14] 20 [11–32] 0.026*
Days since hospital admission 13 [7–21] 12 [8–13] 19 [7–31] 0.115
Days since ICU admission 12 [3–21] 12 [8–13] 15 [2–31] 0.161
Comorbidities
Charlson Comorbidity Index 1 [1, 2] 2 [1, 2] 1 [1, 2] 0.878
Hypertension, n (%) 14 (40.0) 6 (50.0) 8 (34.8) 0.477
Diabetes, n (%) 6 (17.1) 2 (16.7) 4 (17.4) > 0.999
History of pulmonary embolism, n (%) 1 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) > 0.999
Chronic obstructive lung disease, n (%) 3 (8.6) 2 (16.7) 1 (4.3) 0.266
Chronic therapy
Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 2 (5.7) 1 (8.3) 1 (4.3) > 0.999
Angiotensin II receptor blockers, n (%) 4 (11.4) 3 (25.0) 1 (4.3) > 0.999
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, n (%) 3 (8.6) 2 (16.7) 1 (4.3) 0.239
Oral anticoagulants, n (%) 2 (5.7) 2 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 0.098
Antiplatelet therapy, n (%) 5 (14.3) 5 (41.7) 0 (0.0) 0.150
Steroids in the previous month, n (%) 3 (8.6) 2 (16.7) 1 (4.3) 0.239
Drugs received during ICU stay
Darunavir/ritonavir, n (%) 5 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 5 (21.7) 0.150
Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 24 (68.6) 10 (83.3) 14 (60.9) 0.432
Remdesivir, n (%) 1 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) > 0.999
Tocilizumab, n (%) 12 (34.3) 5 (41.7) 7 (30.4) 0.709
Methylprednisolone, n (%) 15 (42.9) 6 (50.0) 9 (39.1) 0.721
Anticoagulation regimen
None, n (%) 1 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 0.098
Enoxaparin, prophylactic dose, n (%) 9 (25.7) 6 (50.0) 3 (13.0)
Enoxaparin, therapeutic dose, n (%) 18 (51.4) 5 (41.7) 13 (56.5)
Sodium heparin (continuous infusion), n (%) 7 (20.0) 1 (8.3) 6 (26.1)
Blood analyses
Interleukin-6 (ng/L) 45 [8–153] 18 [8–45] 85 [10–739] 0.115
D-dimer (mcg/L) 1497 [990–4126] 1024 [519–2792] 1581 [1174–5358] 0.023*
Ferritin (mcg/L) 921 [603–1888] 733 [477–904] 1399 [888–1929] 0.016*
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 17 [9–89] 10 [5–16] 40 [13–107] 0.017*
Gas exchange
pHa 7.43 [7.40–7.45] 7.44 [7.42–7.47] 7.43 [7.34–7.45] 0.184
PaCO2 (mmHg) 43 [39–53] 39 [37–42] 47 [42–55] 0.001*
PaO2 (mmHg) 94 [77–125] 108 [93–144] 82 [71–97] 0.023*
PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) 179 [117–195] 194 [186–250] 139 [108–188] 0.002*
Bicarbonate (mEq/L) 28 [25–31] 27 [25–28] 29 [25–33] 0.071
Respiratory parameters     
PEEP (cmH2O) 10 [8–10] 10 [8–10] 10 [8–12] 0.959
FiO2 (%) 60 [50–70] 60 [45–63] 60 [50–70] 0.172
Respiratory rate (min−1) 19 [16–24] 16 [14–20] 20 [16–25] 0.011*
Tidal volume per predicted body weight (mL/kg) 7.3 [5.5–7.8] n.a 7.3 [5.5–7.8] n.a
Driving pressure (cmH2O) 16 [12–18] n.a 16 [12–18] n.a
Plateau pressure (cmH2O) 25 [21–28] n.a 25 [21–28] n.a
Compliance (mL/cmH2O) 34 [22–43] n.a 34 [22–43] n.a
Ventilatory ratio 1.8 [1.4–2.4] n.a 1.8 [1.4–2.4] n.a
  1. n.a.: data unavailable in non-intubated patients. ICU: intensive care unit; PEEP: positive end-expiratory pressure; pHa: arterial pH; PaCO2: arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2: arterial partial pressure of oxygen; FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen
  2. *Non-invasive versus invasive respiratory support (p < 0.05)