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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics, COVID-19 therapies, and outcomes

From: Comparison of host endothelial, epithelial and inflammatory response in ICU patients with and without COVID-19: a prospective observational cohort study

Characteristics ICU COVID-19
Negative
(N = 93)
ICU COVID-19
Positive
(N = 78)
p value
Mean age—year 54.8 (± 16.9) 54.3 (± 17.5) 0.85
Male—no. (%) 55 (59) 56 (72) 0.12
Race—no. (%)    
 American Indian/Alaska Native 3 (3) 2 (3) 0.25
 Asian 5 (5) 7 (9)  
 Black/African American 17 (18) 6 (8)  
 White 59 (63) 56 (72)  
 Unknown/other 9 (10) 4 (5)  
Ethnicity—no. (%)    
 Hispanic or Latino 7 (8) 35 (45) < 0.001
 Not Hispanic or Latino 79 (85) 42 (54)  
 Unknown 7 (8) 1 (1)  
Mean body mass index—kg/m2 30.4 (± 11.2) 29.6 (± 7.3) 0.26
Coexisting disorder—no. (%)    
 Asthma 21 (23) 10 (13) 0.15
 Cerebrovascular Disease 8 (9) 8 (10) 0.92
 Chronic Kidney Disease 26 (28) 11 (14) 0.04
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 23 (25) 3 (4) < 0.001
 Coronary Artery Disease 15 (16) 8 (10) 0.37
 Congestive Heart Failure 18 (19) 8 (10) 0.15
 Diabetes mellitus 29 (31) 22 (28) 0.73
 Hypertension 51 (55) 35 (45) 0.25
Study Enrollment ACTT-1 8-Point Ordinal Scale, n (%)    
 4 (Hospitalized, no O2 therapy, requiring ongoing medical care) 16 (17) 16 (21) 0.25
 5 (Hospitalized, any supplemental 02) 18 (19) 14 (18)  
 6 (Non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannula) 15 (16) 13 (17)  
 7 (invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) 44 (47) 35 (45)  
Primary ICU Admission Diagnosis, no. (%)    
 Pneumonia or respiratory distress/failure 70 (75) 58 (74) 0.39
 Sepsisa 9 (10) 4 (5)  
 Other 14 (15) 16 (21)  
ARDS 23 (25) 28 (36) 0.12
APACHE III Score 80.8 (± 29.5) 70.5 (± 28.7) 0.02
Admission PaO2:FIO2 ratio—median (IQR)b 50 (31–70) 70 (45–80) 0.17
Charlson Comorbidity Index 4.7 (2.9) 3.4 (2.3) 0.001
COVID-19 specific therapies, no. (%)    
 Convalescent plasma 0 (0) 16 (21) < 0.001
 Remdesivir 0 (0) 12 (15) < 0.001
 Hydroxychloroquine 0 (0) 11 (14) < 0.001
 Tocilizumab 0 (0) 6 (8) 0.01
 Dexamethasone of 6 mg or equivalent glucocorticoid dose 31 (33) 31 (40) 0.39
Length of hospital stay, median (IQR), days 15.3 (± 16.4) 23.0 (± 23.6) 0.02
  1. Entries are mean (± SD) for continuous variables, or N (%) for categorical variables
  2. APACHE III acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, ACTT-1 Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial
  3. aDiagnosis of sepsis included not having a primary diagnosis of respiratory failure or pneumonia and having one of the following ICU admission diagnoses: sepsis, septic Shock, necrotizing soft tissue infection, bacteremia, cellulitis, urinary tract infection and abscess
  4. bData on admission PaO2:FIO2 ratio were missing for 17 patients without COVID-19 and 14 patients with COVID-19 who received mechanical ventilation