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Table 2 Organisms identified by culture and PCR testing (BAL only) in patients with confirmed VAP

From: Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients with COVID-19

Organism ETA
(≥ 105 CFU/ml)
BAL culture
(≥ 104 CFU/ml)
BAL PCR (≤ Ct32)
Gram negative    
Burkholderia cepacia 1   
Citrobacter freundii   1 *
Citrobacter koseri 1 1 *
Coliform (not further specified) 1   
Escherichia coli 5 3! 4!
Enterobacter asburiae 1   *
Enterobacter cloacae 3   
Enterobacteraeciae (not further specified)    2
Haemophilus influenzae 1   4
Klebsiella aerogenes 2 1 *
Klebsiella pneumoniae 2 3 5
Klebsiella oxytoca 3 1 *
Proteus mirabilus 1   1$
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7 3 2
Serratia liquefaciens 1   
Serratia marcescens 1 2 5
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 3 4 4
Gram positive    
Staphylococcus aureus 2 2 1
Fungi    
Aspergillus fumigatus    1
Non-pathogenic organisms    
Candida albicans 6 4 4
Candida spp.    1
Coagulase negative Staphylococci   1 4
Enterococcus faecium   2 7
Streptococcus spp. (non-pneumoniae, non-pyogenes)    4
Herpes simplex virus    2
  1. *Sequence for the organism in question not present on the TAC
  2. !1 E. coli was detected by culture but not TAC in a patient, 2 E. coli detected by TAC without growth on culture
  3. $Sequence on TAC is for Proteus spp. rather than species specific