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Table 1 The incidence of ROSC, survival to admission, survival to discharge, 1 month survival, and 1 year survival: the overall estimates and subgroup analyses

From: The global survival rate among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 No. of reportsSurvivorsOHCA casesProportion (%)95%CII2P value for heterogeneity
ROSC*74203,0841,560,83029.727.6 to 31.799.90%< 0.001
Sex
 Men224285628.924.2 to 33.643.4%0.184
 Women215147831.627.4 to 35.80.00%0.542
 Combined70202,6911,559,49629.727.6 to 31.899.90%< 0.001
Study location
 Europe32416612,27436.732.4 to 40.996.10%< 0.001
 Asia17186,0601,500,11022.118.1 to 26.0100.00%< 0.001
 North America20698132,52024.319.7 to 28.999.10%< 0.001
 Oceania5587715,92638.622.9 to 54.299.20%< 0.001
Study period
 1976–199925370615,42934.228.0 to 40.498.70%< 0.001
 2000–200930409117,15928.323.9 to 32.798.00%< 0.001
 2010–201919195,2871,528,24227.523.6 to 31.3100.00%< 0.001
CPR type
 Bystander CPR17138,149863,97826.320.9 to 31.8100.00%< 0.001
 EMS CPR1545,505624,49636.323.8 to 48.999.50%< 0.001
 Unspecific CPR4219,43072,35629.625.9 to 33.399.30%< 0.001
Origin of OHCA
 Cardiac etiology4930,531143,83133.930.1 to 37.799.50%< 0.001
 Non-traumatic14765233,31821.516.2 to 26.899.20%< 0.001
 All patients11164,9011,383,68123.318.3 to 28.3100.00%< 0.001
 OthersNANANANANANANA
Witnessed type
 Witnessed31106,894440,28136.430.6 to 42.299.90%< 0.001
 Not witnessed1349336.626.8 to 46.40.00%< 0.001
 Mixed3695,8281,119,24823.722.2 to 25.399.80%< 0.001
 Unspecific events6328120828.218.6 to 37.791.30%< 0.001
Survival to admission12255,026377,72722.020.7 to 23.499.4%< 0.001
Sex
 Men7564282920.316.3 to 24.381.00%< 0.001
 Women7254102123.417.8 to 29.172.60%< 0.001
 Combined10854,208373,87722.120.6 to 23.599.40%< 0.001
Study location
 Europe5220,987123,02425.723.9 to 27.698.30%< 0.001
 Asia2723,551203,28315.613.2 to 18.099.70%< 0.001
 North America39550435,18320.518.1 to 22.997.50%< 0.001
 Oceania4498416,23733.521.7 to 45.398.90%< 0.001
Study period
 1976–199959570433,08322.420.0 to 24.897.30%< 0.001
 2000–20093818,433106,33625.122.9 to 27.398.50%< 0.001
 2010–20192530,889238,30817.214.4 to 19.999.80%< 0.001
CPR type
 Bystander CPR21666044,02822.818.8 to 26.899.10%< 0.001
 EMS CPR232043765725.519.7 to 31.297.40%< 0.001
 Unspecific CPR7846,323326,04221.119.5 to 22.799.50%< 0.001
Origin of OHCA
 Cardiac etiology6622,682143,61223.521.2 to 25.999.50%< 0.001
 Non-traumatic3817,293142,53219.317.5 to 21.298.60%< 0.001
 All patients1113,95386,44320.417.1 to 23.799.10%< 0.001
 Others71098514023.619.4 to 27.791.50%< 0.001
Witnessed type
 Witnessed3712,02788,99223.220.3 to 26.199.60%< 0.001
 Not witnessed1239324.715.9 to 33.50.00%< 0.001
 Mixed7542,630286,47021.620.1 to 23.199.10%< 0.001
 Unspecific events9346217219.214.5 to 23.984.30%< 0.001
Survival to discharge16820,946267,8628.88.2 to 9.497.60%< 0.001
Sex
 Men22157626,6667.46.2 to 8.793.60%< 0.001
 Women2172313,5707.25.6 to 8.791.70%< 0.001
 Combined12518,647227,6269.38.5 to 10.097.90%< 0.001
Study location
 Europe59360733,67311.710.5 to 13.092.70%< 0.001
 Asia16532986,3334.53.1 to 5.998.60%< 0.001
 North America8910,115131,5647.76.9 to 8.697.60%< 0.001
 Oceania4189516,29216.25.9 to 26.599.10%< 0.001
Study period
 1976–199980485159,8168.67.7 to 9.595.00%< 0.001
 2000–200963561278,0188.67.5 to 9.697.20%< 0.001
 2010–20192510,483130,0289.98.4 to 11.499.10%< 0.001
CPR type
 Bystander CPR35449339,97411.39.3 to 13.297.40%< 0.001
 EMS CPR27175414,10810.78.2 to 13.295.80%< 0.001
 Unspecific CPR10614,699213,7807.77.0 to 8.397.40%< 0.001
Origin of OHCA
 Cardiac etiology8411,765132,29210.09.1 to 10.997.00%< 0.001
 Non-traumatic627117111,1717.06.2 to 7.997.70%< 0.001
 All patients1387998268.35.4 to 11.296.00%< 0.001
 Others9118514,57310.18.3 to 12.089.50%< 0.001
Witnessed type
 Witnessed44896797,06910.59.2 to 11.797.60%< 0.001
 Not witnessed3163244.41.4 to 7.440.00%0.189
 Mixed11811,951170,3418.27.5 to 8.997.20%< 0.001
 Unspecific events3121288.94.0 to 13.80.00%0.705
One-month survival§54247,9992,362,22310.79.1 to 12.399.9%< 0.001
Sex
 Men4396846,8318.05.2 to 10.999.10%< 0.001
 Women4247718,8919.53.2 to 15.899.50%< 0.001
 Combined45241,5542,296,50111.09.3 to 12.8100%< 0.001
Study location
 Europe2825,371292,4739.07.6 to 10.399.50%< 0.001
 Asia21222,2852,066,70512.810.0 to 15.5100%< 0.001
 North America2416236.54.6 to 8.50.00%0.415
 Oceania3302242216.08.4 to 23.796.10%< 0.001
Study period
 1976–1999NANANANANANANA
 2000–20092817,304219,9658.06.7 to 9.399.3%< 0.001
 2010–201926230,6952,142,25813.310.9 to 15.7100%< 0.001
CPR type
 Bystander CPR25161,3861,074,76712.89.0 to 16.7100%< 0.001
 EMS CPR637,308666,66912.38.6 to 16.099.70%< 0.001
 Unspecific CPR2349,305620,7877.97.1 to 8.799.20%< 0.001
Origin of OHCA
 Cardiac etiology2621,262208,63110.59.1 to 12.099.10%< 0.001
 Non-traumatic1233426.74.1 to 9.30< 0.001
 All patients27226,7142,153,25010.88.5 to 13.1100%< 0.001
 OthersNANANANANANANA
Witnessed type
 Witnessed27169,5421,055,93513.210.3 to 16.199.9%< 0.001
 Not witnessedNANANANANANANA
 Mixed2778,4571,306,2888.37.4 to 9.199.7%< 0.001
 Unspecific eventsNANANANANANANA
One-year survival27379142,0277.75.8 to 9.597.5%< 0.001
Sex
 Men1133204.11.9 to 6.30.00%< 0.001
 Women1142196.43.2 to 9.60.00%< 0.001
 Combined25376441,4887.95.9 to 9.897.7%< 0.001
Study location
 Europe16337835,6049.26.4 to 12.098.2%< 0.001
 Asia311825045.32.7 to 8.087.8%< 0.001
 North America79621904.02.8 to 5.351.2%0.056
 Oceania1199172911.510.0 to 13.00.0%< 0.001
Study period
 1976–19991040735178.54.1 to 12.896.6%< 0.001
 2000–20091447974966.04.3 to 7.689.0%< 0.001
 2010–20193290531,01412.35.4 to 19.399.6%< 0.001
CPR type
 Bystander CPR2157910,80512.36.4 to 18.179.6%0.027
 EMS CPR3174803.20.5 to 6.064.6%0.059
 Unspecific CPR22219530,7427.66.1 to 9.295.2%< 0.001
Origin of OHCA
 Cardiac etiology25376341,4937.96.0 to 9.997.6%< 0.001
 Non-traumatic1243387.14.4 to 9.80.0%< 0.001
 All patientsNANANANANANANA
 Others141962.00 to 4.00.0%< 0.001
Witnessed type
 Witnessed1228357655.34.0 to 6.577.9%< 0.001
 Not witnessedNANANANANANANA
 Mixed15350836,2629.06.1 to 11.998.3%< 0.001
 Unspecific eventsNANANANANANANA
  1. Note: CI confidence interval, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, EMS emergency medical services, NA not available, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation
  2. *Two studies reported their results by study location, 2 studies reported their results by sex, 4 studies reported their results by CPR type, 2 studies reported their results by witness type, and 1 study reported their results by OHCA type; therefore, there were 74 reports from 62 studies
  3. †Four studies reported their results by study location, 7 studies reported their results by sex, 7 studies reported their results by CPR type, 2 studies reported their results by witness type, and 1 study reported their results by OHCA type; therefore, there were 122 reports from 88 studies
  4. Three studies reported their results by study location, 21 studies reported their results by sex, 16 studies reported their results by CPR type, 1 study reported their results by witness type, and 2 studies reported their results by OHCA type; therefore, there were 168 reports from 103 studies
  5. §Four studies reported their results by sex, 4 studies reported their results by CPR type, 2 studies reported their results by OHCA type, and 1 study reported their results by year; therefore, there were 54 reports from 33 studies
  6. ¶One study reported their results by sex, 2 studies reported their results by CPR type, and 1 study reported their results by witness type; therefore, there were 27 reports from 22 studies