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Table 1 General characteristics, hemodynamics, perfusion parameters, fluids, vasopressors, and outcomes for the propensity-matched cohort

From: Effects of very early start of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock: a propensity score-based analysis

 AllVery early-VPs (n = 93)Delayed-VPs (n = 93)p
General characteristics
 Age, years64 (52–74)63 (51–74)65 (53–75)0.55
 Male sex, n (%)
 Weight, kg69 (58–77)70 (57–80)65 (59–72)0.08
 APACHE II16 (13–21)16 (13–19)16 (13–23)0.22
 SOFA day 19 (7–12)9 (8–12)10 (7–12)0.93
 Infection source, n (%)
  Lung60 (32.4)33 (35.9)27 (29.0)0.35
  Genitourinary33 (17.7)17 (18.3)16 (17.2)1.00
  Abdominal64 (34.4)29 (31.2)35 (37.6)0.44
  Soft tissue17 (9.1)9 (9.7)8 (8.6)1.00
  Bacteremia39 (21.0)17 (18.3)22 (23.7)0.47
  Other11 (5.9)7 (7.5)4 (4.3)0.54
 Origin   0.56
  Emergency room135 (72.6)66 (71.0)69 (74.2) 
  General ward24 (12.9)11 (11.8)13 (14.0) 
  Intensive care unit27 (14.5)16 (17.2)11 (11.8) 
 Comorbidities, n (%)
  Hypertension73 (39.2)34 (36.6)39 (41.9)0.55
  Coronary disease9 (4.8)4 (4.3)5 (5.4)1.00
  Chronic heart failure15 (8.1)7 (7.5)8 (8.6)1.00
  ESRF12 (6.5)5 (5.4)7 (7.5)0.77
  Previous stroke3 (1.6)3 (3.2)0 (0.0)0.25
  Chronic atrial fibrillation12 (6.5)12 (6.5)12 (6.5)1.00
  Diabetes36 (19.4)18 (19.4)18 (19.4)1.00
  Cancer38 (20.4)21 (22.6)17 (18.3)0.59
  COPD20 (10.8)14 (15.1)6 (6.5)0.10
  Chronic use steroids28 (15.1)9 (9.7)19 (20.4)0.06
  Cirrhosis12 (6.5)4 (4.3)8 (8.6)0.16
  Acute myocardial infarction3 (1.6)2 (2.2)1 (1.1)1.00
  Acute heart failure12 (6.5)8 (8.6)4 (4.3)0.37
  Acute stroke6 (3.2)2 (2.2)4 (4.3)0.68
  Acute atrial fibrillation9 (4.8)2 (2.2)7 (7.5)0.17
Septic shock definition   0.19
 Sepsis + VP + hyperlactatemia, n (%)127 (68.3)64 (68.8)63 (67.7) 
 Sepsis + VP, n (%)59 (31.7)29 (31.2)30 (32.3) 
Supportive/rescue therapies
 Steroid use, n (%)114 (61.3)57 (61.3)57 (61.3)1.00
 Vasopressin use, n (%)63 (33.9)29 (31.2)34 (36.6)0.54
 Acute RRT35 (27.6)18 (28.1)17 (27.0)0.50
Time intervals
 Up to VPs
  From first hypotension to VPs2 (0–4)1 (0–2)3 (2–5)< 0.001
  From FRLoad to VPs0 (0–3)0 (0–1)3 (1–4)< 0.001
 Up to ICU admission
  From VPs to ICU admission2 (0–4)1 (0–3)1 (0–4)0.87
  From first hypotension to ICU admission3 (1–4)3 (1–4)3 (2–4)0.91
  From FRLoad to ICU admission2 (0–4)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)0.78
 Up to antibiotic start
  From first hypotension to antibiotics2 (0–5)3 (1–5)1 (−3–5)0.04
Hemodynamics, perfusion parameters
 At FRLoad
  SAP88 (78–98)89 (79–100)88 (77–97)0.61
  DAP47 (40–55)47 (41–55)47 (40–54)0.90
  MAP59 (54–65)59 (54–67)60 (55–66)0.74
  HR105 (90–118)103 (90–118)106 (90–118)0.73
  PP40 (30–53)41 (31–54)40 (30–50)0.73
  DSI2.26 (1.84–2.68)2.13 (1.81–2.56)2.12 (1.80–2.56)0.91
 At VPs
  SAP89 (82–102)92 (83–102)88 (82–100)0.22
  DAP48 (42–55)48 (41–54)48 (42–55)0.85
  MAP57 (55–66)57 (56–59)57 (55–59)0.57
  HR102 (87–118)100 (87–118)104 (89–117)0.73
  PP41 (32–53)43 (31–55)41 (34–50)0.56
  DSI2.17 (1.71–2.56)2.17 (1.70–2.62)2.17 (1.75–2.60)0.83
 pH arterial7.33 (7.26–7.39)7.32 (7.25–7.39)7.34 (7.26–7.39)0.50
 BE arterial− 8.0 (− 11.9 to − 4.1)− 7.8 (− 11.4 to − 3.9)− 8.2 (−12.0 to − 4.2)0.43
 SvO2, %, n71.5 (64.5–79.5), 9672.2 (62.8–80.5), 4671.5 (68.0–78.5), 500.67
 Pv-aCO2, mmHg, n4.4 (3.5–6.4), 954.8 (3.8–6.1), 464.1 (3.5–6.4), 490.69
 PvaCO2/Da-vO2 ratio, n1.41 (1.01–1.98), 791.44 (1.01–1.93), 411.38 (1.02–2.14), 390.87
 Lactate initial, mmol/L, n2.4 (1.5–4.5), 1862.4 (1.6–4.2), 932.6 (1.3–4.6), 930.84
 Lactate 6H, mmol/L2.0 (1.1–3.8), 1861.9 (1.1–3.2), 932.1 (1.1–4.0), 930.55
 Lactate 24H, mmol/L, n1.7 (1.1–3.2), 1581.6 (1.0–2.7), 801.9 (1.1–4.5), 780.04
 CVP at VP, mmHg, n7 (5–12), 2911 (7–13), 116 (4–9), 180.09
 CVP at 6H, mmHg, n8 (5–12), 827 (5–12), 408 (5–12), 420.98
 CVP at 24H, mmHg, n8 (6–13), 1078 (6–12), 5210 (6–15), 550.28
Fluids/VP/inotropics
 Cumulated volume of resuscitation fluids, mL
  FRLoad to VPs590 (0–1565)0 (0–500)1500 (650–2300)< 0.001
  VPs to 2H1000 (450–1900)500 (200–1100)1700 (1000–2700)< 0.001
  VPs to 4H1230 (500–2350)700 (300–1500)1800 (1000–2880)< 0.001
  VPs to 6H1500 (750–2500)900 (500–1500)2000 (1400–3100)< 0.001
  VPs to 8H1750 (900–3000)1100 (500–1900)2600 (1600–3800)< 0.001
 Cumulated volume of resuscitation fluids, mL/kg
  FRLoad to VPs8.8 (0.0–25.0)0.0 (0.0–8.8)21.9 (9.0–37.0)< 0.001
  VPs to 2H16.0 (6.3–30.0)7.3 (3.2–17.8)25.0 (15.1–41.8)< 0.001
  VPs to 4H18.7 (8.1–33.3)10.0 (4.3–21.6)28.3 (17.1–45.4)< 0.001
  VPs to 6H23.1 (10.0–38.5)12.5 (6.9–24.1)28.6 (21.9–50.0)< 0.001
  VPs to 8H25.9 (12.5–44.5)16.7 (8.6–27.3)42.5 (24.3–58.1)< 0.001
 Delta of resuscitation fluids, mL
  VPs to 2H175 (0–500)200 (0–500)0 (0–400)0.16
  2H to 4H0 (0–300)0 (0–400)0 (0–300)0.92
  4H to 6H0 (0–370)0 (0–300)0 (0–400)0.11
  6H to 8H0 (0–500)0 (0–300)300 (0–630)< 0.001
 Net fluid balance
  At FRLoad552 (0–2507)310 (0–1750)340 (0–2500)0.19
  At VPs1989 (661–3700)760 (10–2300)2090 (920–3260)< 0.001
  At 6H2594 (1469–5055)1760 (1070–3410)2680 (1470–4480)< 0.001
  At 24H4762 (3197–7049)3905 (2370–5100)5400 (3790–7290)< 0.001
 Norepinephrine max. dose, μg/kg/min0.26 (0.13–0.48)0.26 (0.11–0.45)0.28 (0.15–0.53)0.32
 Dobutamine max. dose, μg/kg/min, n5.2 (3.0–10.2), 285.0 (3.7–7.0), 136.6 (3.0–11.6), 150.55
Clinical outcomes
 LOS-ICU9 (5–17)9 (5–18)8 (4–17)0.30
 LOS-Hospital16 (7–32)17 (9–32)15 (6–30)0.11
 Mechanical ventilation-free days22 (0–28)23 (14–28)21 (0–26)0.03
 RRT-free days6 (0–18)8 (1–18)1 (0–13)0.26
 Mortality of 28 days, n (%)53 (28.5)17 (18.3)36 (38.7)0.03
  1. APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, CHF cardiac heart failure, ESRF end-stage renal failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, VP vasopressor, VPs vasopressor start, FRLoad first fluid load with resuscitative intention, SAP systolic arterial pressure, DAP diastolic arterial pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, HR heart rate, PP pulse pressure, DSI diastolic shock index (HR to DAP ratio), BE base excess, SvO2 oxygen venous saturation, Pv-aCO2 venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference, PvaCO2/Da-vO2 ratio venous-arterial carbon dioxide to arterial-venous oxygen differences ratio, CVP central venous pressure, LOS-ICU intensive care unit - length of stay, LOS-Hospital hospital - length of stay, RRT renal replacement therapy
  2. *Including only patients receiving renal replacement therapy at least for one session