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Table 1 Patient characteristics for the Holland study and the pooled data (including the Holland and Australian study)

From: Breath-synchronized electrical stimulation of the expiratory muscles in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomized controlled feasibility study and pooled analysis

  Holland study Pooled data (Holland + Australia)
All (N = 20) Active (N = 10) Sham (N = 10) All (N = 40) Active (N = 20) Sham (N = 20)
Age, years 69.0 ± 8.5 72.2 ± 6.1 65.7 ± 9.6 63.4 ± 14 64.5 ± 14.9 62.4 ± 13.3
Sex, male/female 14/6 8/2 6/4 26/14 15/5 11/9
Body mass index, kg/m2 26.4 ± 4.4 25.9 ± 5.1 26.8 ± 3.8 26.4 ± 4.4 26.8 ± 4.5 26.5 ± 3.2
History of COPD, % (n/N) 50 (10/20) 60 (6/10) 40 (4/10) 25 (10/40) 30 (6/20) 20 (4/20)
MV duration at enrollment, days 2.5 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.8
FiO2 at study enrollment 0.42 ± 0.12 0.42 ± 0.09 0.42 ± 0.15 0.36 ± 0.13 0.34 ± 0.11 0.37 ± 0.15
Primary reason for MV, % (n/N)       
 Cardiac arrest 5 (1/20) 0 (0/0) 10 (1/10) 2.5 (1/40) 0 (0/20) 5 (1/20)
 Pneumonia 50 (10/20) 40 (4/10) 60 (6/10) 30 (12/40) 25 (5/20) 35 (7/20)
 Postoperative 5 (1/20) 10 (1/10) 0 (0/0) 5 (2/40) 10 (2/20) 0 (0/20)
 Exacerbation COPD 25 (5/20) 30 (3/10) 20 (2/10) 12.5 (5/40) 15 (3/20) 10 (2/20)
 Neurologic dysfunction 10 (2/20) 10 (1/10) 10 (1/10) 32.5 (13/40) 40 (8/20) 25 (5/20)
 Sepsis 0 (0/0) 0 (0/0) 0 (0/0) 12.5 (5/40) 5 (1/20) 20 (4/20)
 Other 5 (1/20) 10 (1/10) 0 (0/0) 2.5 (2/40) 5 (1/20) 5 (1/20)
Successfully extubated during study, % (n/N) 60 (12/20) 80 (8/10) 40 (4/10) 65 (26/40) 80 (16/20) 50 (10/20)
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, or as absolute or percentage number of patients
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, MV mechanical ventilation