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Table 3 Estimated effects of corticosteroid treatment on 60-day mortality in patients with ARDS associated with COVID-19

From: Corticosteroid therapy for coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome: a cohort study with propensity score analysis

  Nos. Hazard ratio 95% CI p value
All ARDS patients
 Full multivariate modela 355 0.421 0.21, 0.85 0.0160
Sensitivity analysis
 ARDS patients defined by Berlin definition 168 0.43 0.21, 0.88 0.0208
 Initiated ≤ 2 days after hospital admission versus no corticosteroids (reference) 262 0.37 0.18, 0.76 0.0072
 Full multivariate model, ARDS onset as baselineb 335 0.48 0.24, 0.97 0.0399
 Initiated ≤ 2 days after ARDS onset versus no corticosteroids, ARDS onset as baselineb (reference) 279 0.45 0.22, 0.92 0.0275
  1. All of the models assessed the effects of corticosteroids as a time-varying covariate
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, FIO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, SpO2 pulse oxygen saturation
  3. aAdjusted for age, sex, SOFA score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic renal or liver disease, solid malignant tumor, hematologic malignancy, and immunosuppressive status), antiviral treatment (Lopinavir–Ritonavir, oseltamivir, and ganciclovir), and respiratory supports (high-flow oscillation oxygen, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, and invasive mechanical ventilation). Propensity score was calculated by a non-parsimonious logistic regression model that included: age, sex, SOFA score, temperature, respiratory rate, SpO2/FiO2 ratio, blood lymphocyte count, blood neutrophil count, and level of c-reactive protein at hospital admission
  4. bUsing values of SpO2/FiO2 ratio, respiratory rate, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, SOFA score, blood lymphocyte count, blood neutrophil count, and level of CRP at ARDS onset