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Table 1 Patient characteristics and outcomes

From: CXCL10 could drive longer duration of mechanical ventilation during COVID-19 ARDS

  Study groups p value*
Control group, n = 7 Non-COVID-19 ARDS, n = 7 COVID-19 ARDS, n = 14
Age (years), median [IQR] 50 [32–54] 54 [43–64] 67 [63–70] 0.085
Male sex, n (%) 5 (71) 6 (85) 11 (78) 0.712
BMI, median [IQR] 26.6 [25.7–32.6] 30.1 [27.1–32.2] 28.2 [25.9–30.5] 0.576
Medical history
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%) 0 1 (14) 1 (7) 1.000
 Pulmonary disease, n (%) 1 (14) 1 (14) 4 (29) 0.624
 Cerebrovascular disease, n (%) 1 (14) 1 (14) 1 (7) 1.000
 Malignancy, n (%) 0 0 2 (14) 0.533
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 1 (14) 0 3 (21) 0.521
 Charlson score, n (%) 0 [0–0.5] 0 [0–1.5] 0 [0–1.8] 0.935
 Chronic alcohol consumption, n (%) 0 2 (29) 0 0.100
 Tobacco use, n (%) 5 (71) 3 (43) 6 (43) 1.000
Baseline characteristics
 Septic shock, n (%)   4 (57) 2 (14) 0.120
 SAPS II score, median [IQR]   33 [21.0–44.5] 26.5 [21–32] 0.349
 SOFA score, median [IQR]   6 [5.5–11] 4 [4–5] 0.045
 Tidal volume (mL/kg of predicted body weight), median [IQR]   6.2 [5.8–6.7] 5.7 [5.5–6.1] 0.360
 PEEP (cm of water), median [IQR]   10 [10–12] 12 [10–13.5] 0.262
 Plateau pressure (cm of water), median [IQR]   24 [22–25.5] 22 [20–24] 0.162
 Driving pressure (cm of water), median [IQR]   12 [10.5–17.5] 11.5 [8.3–12] 0.162
 Respiratory system compliance (mL/cm of water), median [IQR]   35.3 [29.1–43.3] 35.7 [31.6–50] 0.576
 PaO2:FiO2 (mmHg), median [IQR]   68.5 [60.9–90.7] 88.4 [79.2–116.6] 0.067
 Arterial pH, median [IQR]   7.29 [7.29–7.47] 7.46 [7.37–7.49] 0.245
 PaCO2 (mmHg), median [IQR]   39.5 [38.1–43.7] 35.1 [33.3–40.8] 0.287
 Lactate level (mmol/L), median [IQR]   1.8 [1.6–3.3] 1.4 [1.1–1.7] 0.079
 C-reactive protein (mg/L), median [IQR] 3 [3–5] 274 [97–347] 155 [118–224] 0.550
 Procalcitonin (μg/L), median [IQR]   21.6 [3.8–38.7] 0.3 [0.2–0.5] 0.167
 ASAT (IU/L), median [IQR]   47 [43–157] 52 [34–100] 0.799
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L), median [IQR]   73 [61–137] 65 [54–81] 0.247
 Neutrophils (/mm3), median [IQR] 4330 [3738–5260] 10,900 [7705–18,120] 5960 [3960–10,515] 0.094
 Lymphocytes (/mm3), median [IQR] 2350 [1595–5010] 900 [255–1270] 825 [648–1023] 0.913
 Monocytes (/mm3), median [IQR] 525 [440–760] 410 [275–795] 420 [220–633] 0.455
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
 Alveolar cells (/mm3), median [IQR] 361 [343–889] 2430 [1072–7740] 1426 [879–3029] 0.255
Treatments
 Antibiotic multitherapy, n (%)   6 (86) 3 (21) 0.016
 Hydrocortisone, n (%)   4 (57) 5 (36) 0.397
 Hydroxychloroquine, n (%)   0 4 (29) 0.255
 Remdesivir, n (%)   0 1 (7) 1.000
 High-flow nasal oxygen, n (%)   5 (71) 5 (36) 0.183
 Non-invasive mechanical ventilation, n (%)   3 (43) 1 (7) 0.088
 Prone positioning, n (%)   6 (86) 8 (57) 0.337
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, n (%)   2 (29) 0 0.100
 Extrarenal purification, n (%)   2 (29) 0 0.100
 Vasopressors, n (%)   5 (71) 9 (64) 1.000
Outcomes at 30 days
 Ventilatory acquired pneumonia (VAP), n (%)   0 10 (71) 0.004
 Antibiotic-free days, median [IQR]   14 [5.5–17] 13 [5.5–17] 0.911
 Thrombo-embolic disease, n (%)   1 (14) 6 (43) 0.337
 Intensive care unit-free days, median [IQR]   10 [0–15.5] 0 [0–12.3] 0.493
 Ventilator-free days, median [IQR]   18 [17–21] 8 [0–15] 0.034
 Hospital-free days, median [IQR]   0 [0–9.5] 0 [0–3] 0.450
 30-day mortality, n (%)   1 (14) 3 (21) 1.000
  1. *Comparison between patients with non-COVID-19 and COVID-19 ARDS