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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the original-eligible population and weighted population

From: Awake prone positioning does not reduce the risk of intubation in COVID-19 treated with high-flow nasal oxygen therapy: a multicenter, adjusted cohort study

  Original sample Weighted sample
HFNO (n = 144) HFNO + awake-PP (n = 55) P value HFNO 68.43% HFNO + awake-PP 31.57% P value
Patients demographics and comorbidities
 Age 63.0 [55.0–71.0]/144 60.0 [54.0–70.0]/55 0.38 60.3 60.9 0.82
 Gender, female 39/143 (27.3%) 13/54 (24.1%) 0.71 28.8% 33.9% 0.62
 Body mass index, kg/m2 27.3 [25.1–29.4]/120 26.8 [24.8–31.2]/49 0.75 28.6 28.2 0.66
 Arterial Hypertension 60/144 (41.7%) 20/55 (36.4%) 0.52 42.8% 34.3% 0.41
 Diabetes Mellitus 23/144 (16.0%) 9/55 (16.4%) 0.99 18.1% 10.7% 0.25
 Chronic heart failure 2/144 (1.4%) 2/55 (3.6%) 0.30 1.4% 5.2% 0.46
 Chronic renal failure 14/144 (9.7%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.78 6.4% 6.2% 0.98
 Asthma 5/144 (3.5%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.99 7.6% 6.3% 0.87
 COPD 6/144 (4.2%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.46 4.2% 8.2% 0.44
 Obesity 25/120 (20.8%) 17/49 (34.7%) 0.07 30.2% 32.4% 0.82
 Dyslipidemia 15/144 (10.4%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.59 8.1% 4.5% 0.38
 Malignancy 9/144 (6.3%) 3/55 (5.5%) 0.99 4.9% 3.2% 0.68
Medical treatment
 Anti-hypertensive agents 62/144 (43.1%) 19/55 (34.6%) 0.33 43.9% 35.9% 0.45
 Hypoglycemic agents 18/144 (12.5%) 7/55 (12.7%) 0.99 17.8% 17.0% 0.92
 Antiplatelet agents 17/144 (11.8%) 5/55 (9.1%) 0.80 8.8% 12.8% 0.55
 Anticoagulants 10/144 (6.9%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.29 10.7% 1.2% 0.014
 Bronchodilators 35/144 (24.3%) 10/55 (18.2%) 0.44 22.4% 23.3% 0.93
 Lipid lowering agents 8/144 (5.6%) 3/55 (5.5%) 0.99 7.8% 3.2% 0.32
 Thyroid hormone replacement 10/144 (6.9%) 9/55 (16.4%) 0.058 12.4% 25.5% 0.20
 Immunossupressors 9/144 (6.3%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.29 4.1% 0% 0.050
 Corticosteroids 9/144 (6.3%) 2/55 (3.6%) 0.73 4.1% 0% 0.050
Chronology
 Days from symptom onset to hospital admission 7.0 [4.0–9.0]/141 7.0 [4.0010.0]/55 0.75 7.4 7.6 0.79
 Days from symptom onset to HFNO 10.0 [8.0–13.0]/142 11.0 [8.0–13.0]/55 0.44 10.1 10.2 0.99
Symptoms at ICU admission
 Fever 121/144 (84.0%) 51/55 (92.7%) 0.16 87.0% 90.0% 0.70
 Cough 94/144 (65.3%) 36/55 (65.5%) 0.99 69.3% 62.2% 0.50
 Dyspnea 92/144 (63.9%) 39/55 (70.9%) 0.40 62.4% 73.8% 0.23
 Malaise 57/144 (39.6%) 27/55 (49.1%) 0.26 42.1% 56.3% 0.19
 Myalgia 22/144 (15.3%) 10/55 (18.2%) 0.66 18.0% 18.8% 0.92
 Headache 12/144 (8.3%) 6/55 (10.9%) 0.58 7.8% 5.8% 0.64
 Rhinorrhea 1/144 (0.7%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.47 1.1% 3.3% 0.52
 Vomiting 10/144 (6.9%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.99 4.6% 7.9% 0.56
 Arthralgia 6/144 (4.2%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.46 3.4% 5.5% 0.63
 Chest pain 12/144 (8.3%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.11 9.2% 0% 0.006
 Increased sputum 14/144 (9.7%) 6/55 (10.9%) 0.79 7.7% 11.0% 0.57
 Anosmia 6/144 (4.2%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.46 6.5% 6.5% 0.99
 Pharyngodynia 5/144 (3.5%) 1/55 (1.8%) 0.99 3.5% 1.2% 0.33
 Diarrhea 20/144 (13. 9%) 9/55 (16.4%) 0.65 15.8% 15.0% 0.91
 Fatigue 1/144 (0.7%) 4/55 (7.3%) 0.021 0% 6.6% 0.052
Scores
 APACHE II 11.0 [8.0–14.0]/107 8.5 [6.0–13.0]/46 0.069 10.8 11.0 0.87
 Non-respiratory SOFA 4.0 [4.0–5.0]/116 4.0 [4.0–4.0]/46 0.11 4.6 4.7 0.93
Vital Signs
 Temperature, °C 36.9 [36.1–37.6]/141 36.8 [36.2–37.3]/54 0.79 36.9 36.8 0.82
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 87.3 [79.7–95.0]/142 85.8 [78.0–92.0]/54 0.10 89.1 82.9 0.006
 Heart rate, bpm 81.0 [73.0–91.0]/141 78.5 [66.0–88.0]/54 0.073 82.5 78.9 0.25
 SpO2, % 90.0 [88.0–94.0]/141 90.0 [88.0–92.0]/54 0.57 90.4 90.4 0.99
 Respiratory rate, bpm 25.0 [22.0–30.0]/136 23.0 [20.0–30.0]/54 0.081 25.7 25.5 0.87
Arterial blood gas
 PaO2/FiO2 111.0 [83.0–144.0]/124 125.0 [99.0–187.0]/51 0.037 123.9 148.2 0.12
 PaCO2, mmHg 33.1 [30.0–37.0]/129 34.7 [30.8–39.0]/51 0.23 34.7 34.0 0.54
Laboratory findings
 Ferritin, ng/mL 1265 [755–1904]/87 934 [597–2092]/41 0.54 1640 1766 0.77
 D-Dimer, ng/mL 925 [600.0–1800]/114 931 [549–1790]/48 0.77 1605 1608 0.99
 CRP, mg/dL 16.82 [8.31–30.40]/131 21.51 [8.46–145.00]/53 0.20 56.39 57.7 0.93
 Lymphocyte count, 10e3/μL 0.61 [0.40–0.90]/132 0.61 [0.40–0.89]/53 0.82 0.8 0.7 0.60
 IL-6, pg/mL 135.0 [61.8–202.0]/17 93.0 [35.5–301.0]/11 0.20 186.6 134.4 0.47
 LDH, U/L 396.0 [331.0–480.0]/125 380.0 [313.0–528.0]/51 0.27 417.3 434.3 0.61
 Leukocytes, 103/μL 7.1 [5.0–11.2]/131 6.5 [4.4–9.0]/52 0.86 8.1 6.7 0.13
 Procalcitonin, ng/mL 0.2 [0.1–0.6]/99 0.1 [0.1–0.3]/39 0.17 0.7 0.3 0.071
 Platelets, 1000/mm3 232.0 [152.0–342.0]/133 233.0 [153.0–274.0]/53 0.12 261.9 221.3 0.043
 Bilirrubin, mg/dL 0.6 [0.4–1.0]/124 0. 7 [0.5–0.9]/48 0.51 0.9 0.7 0.12
 GPT, U/L 43.5 [23.0–78.0]/130 37.0 [25.5–71.0]/52 0.73 65.5 62.6 0.84
 Creatinine, mg/dL 0.8 [0.6–1.1]/132 0.8 [0.7–1.0]/52 0.67 1.0 1.0 0.72
 Urea, mg/dL 36.0 [27.2–53.0]/76 33.6 [21.0–49.0]/42 0.39 45.5 33.7 0.019
 Troponin, ng/mL 14.0 [4.4–23.4]/69 8.0 [2.8–15.1]/33 0.061 17.3 13.2 0.46
 NTproBNP, pg/mL 418.0 [125.5–1529.0]/16 225.5 [50.0–1263.0]/6 0.33 760.1 731.9 0.94
 Hematocrit, % 38.0 [35.0–42.0]/126 40.7 [36.0–44.0]/50 0.041 38.7 39.4 0.63
 Lactate, mmol/L 1.5 [1.0–2.1]/82 1.6 [1.3–2.00]/33 0.36 1.8 1.8 0.97
  1. Values were obtained from each patient on day 1 of HFNT. Categorical variables are expressed as proportion, and continuous variables as median (IQR) for original-eligible population and percentage and mean for weighted population
  2. HFNO high-flow nasal oxygen therapy, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, CRP C-reactive protein, IL interleukin, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, GPT glutamate pyruvate transaminase