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Table 1 Parameters of inflammation, circulation, and organ function in animals treated with either bacteria killed by cefuroxime alone (n = 4), live bacteria (n = 4), bacteria killed by heat (n = 4), or by a combination of cefuroxime + tobramycin (n = 4)

From: Mode of bacterial killing affects the inflammatory response and associated organ dysfunctions in a porcine E. coli intensive care sepsis model

. Baseline before challenge
0 h 1 h 2 h 3 h 4 h 5 h 6 h
Inflammation
Leucocyte count (109 × L−1), p all groups < 0.001; p cefur vs live NS; p cefur vs heat < 0.001; p cefur vs comb < 0.001
  Cefuroxime 12.0 ± 2.9 3.7 ± 2.1 3.7 ± 1.7 3.5 ± 2.2 4.7 ± 2.5 5.3 ± 2.4 6.7 ± 2.1
  Live bacteria 10.6 ± 6.3 5.3 ± 2.0 5.8 ± 1.3 7.3 ± 4.3 6.2 ± 1.3 5.9 ± 1.0 5.7 ± 1.1
  Heat 9.2 ± 3.0 5.8 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.7 4.9 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 1.1 7.2 ± 1.7 10.5 ± 2.4
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 12.1 ± 3.6 6.9 ± 1.9 12.5 ± 4.2 12.4 ± 3.2 11.6 ± 2.2 11.1 ± 2.0 12.8 ± 2.5
Hemoglobin (g × L−1), p all groups 0.016; p cefur vs live NS; p cefur vs heat NS; p cefur vs comb < 0.01
  Cefuroxime 74 ± 5 94 ± 9 100 ± 7 105 ± 12 106 ± 10 110 ± 14 109 ± 13
  Live bacteria 72 ± 3 82 ± 11 87 ± 14 95 ± 18 99 ± 13 95 ± 10 93 ± 7
  Heat 78 ± 8 96 ± 4 105 ± 6 108 ± 1 108 ± 6 104 ± 9 99 ± 5
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 73 ± 4 83 ± 5 84 ± 7 93 ± 10 93 ± 11 89 ± 9 86 ± 8
Circulation
Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 95 ± 11 83 ± 13 86 ± 19 80 ± 23 80 ± 24 82 ± 20 67 ± 20
  Live bacteria 96 ± 11 78 ± 15 87 ± 11 88 ± 7 87 ± 10 88 ± 17 84 ± 18
  Heat 93 ± 13 92 ± 11 95 ± 21 82 ± 21 85 ± 23 75 ± 14 73 ± 10
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 100 ± 9 100 ± 6 104 ± 6 113 ± 5 113 ± 9 104 ± 15 92 ± 18
LVSWI (g × m × m−2), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 53 ± 1 31 ± 12 30 ± 17 20 ± 12 19 ± 10 19 ± 9 14 ± 8
  Live bacteria 56 ± 5 33 ± 8 34 ± 4 29 ± 7 26 ± 8 26 ± 6 25 ± 5
  Heat 57 ± 15 42 ± 5 34 ± 13 20 ± 10 24 ± 13 23 ± 7 21 ± 6
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 59 ± 13 46 ± 15 40 ± 12 38 ± 12 43 ± 7 40 ± 7 35 ± 7
Plasma lactate (mmol × L−1), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 1.7 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 2.2 3.4 ± 1.8 3.3 ± 1.7 3.3 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.5
  Live bacteria 1.2 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.1
  Heat 1.1 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.5 2.0 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.0 1.4 ± 0.9
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 1.2 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.1
Organ function
Platelet count (109 × L−1), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 343 ± 117 366 ± 147 345 ± 135 258 ± 125 217 ± 165 237 ± 145 248 ± 152
  Live bacteria 314 ± 68 365 ± 57 360 ± 78 289 ± 85 304 ± 104 288 ± 97 279 ± 99
  Heat 259 ± 56 281 ± 35 212 ± 25 162 ± 38 194 ± 35 208 ± 26 218 ± 28
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 286 ± 53 315 ± 48 300 ± 67 280 ± 59 283 ± 53 286 ± 53 282 ± 64
PaO2/FiO2 (kPa), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 59 ± 10 47 ± 13 38 ± 16 25 ± 3 34 ± 16 38 ± 18 35 ± 16
  Live bacteria 58 ± 10 53 ± 18 45 ± 14 32 ± 23 31 ± 24 36 ± 19 34 ± 18
  Heat 60 ± 4 54 ± 12 37 ± 15 32 ± 17 32 ± 14 32 ± 9 32 ± 8
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 60 ± 9 58 ± 10 53 ± 10 45 ± 13 36 ± 14 36 ± 6 34 ± 6
Static pulmonary compliance (mL × cmH2O−1), p all groups NS
  Cefuroxime 24 ± 7 20 ± 5 19 ± 7 15 ± 3 15 ± 5 17 ± 4 16 ± 3
  Live bacteria 25 ± 5 20 ± 4 18 ± 5 16 ± 5 16 ± 5 16 ± 5 16 ± 3
  Heat 21 ± 3 18 ± 3 15 ± 4 15 ± 1 16 ± 1 16 ± 1 16 ± 1
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 23 ± 2 21 ± 2 21 ± 2 19 ± 2 19 ± 1 18 ± 1 18 ± 1
Plasma creatinine (μmol × L−1) p KW all groups 3 h NS; p KW all groups 6 h NS
  Cefuroxime 85 (71–90) 78 (68–88) 76 (65–83) 77 (62–90) 91 (58–112) 101 (59–138) 120 (60–159)
  Live bacteria 66 (61–121) 64 (61–119) 63 (59–117) 64 (58–110) 66 (60–104) 73 (63–91) 79 (68–90)
  Heat 67 (60–70) 67 (61–69) 62 (59–67) 69 (64–74) 75 (65–92) 81 (69–95) 88 (74–95)
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 77 (65–84) 76 (63–81) 74 (62–79) 72 (61–78) 72 (64–83) 77 (69–85) 79 (60–88)
Urine output (ml × h−1) p KW all groups 3 h NS; p KW all groups 6 h NS
  Cefuroxime 55 (44–600) 160 (65–480) 84 (65–95) 59 (11–160) 28 (6–60) 16 (10–33) 16 (0–35)
  Live bacteria 110 (16–120) 310 (70–490) 65 (45–150) 70 (33–80) 46 (25–70) 35 (17–65) 27 (5–38)
  Heat 99 (53–216) 260 (95–500) 183 (60–280) 140 (17–280) 70 (1–190) 67 (0–280) 40 (0–1)
  Cefuroxime + tobramycin 43 (16–88) 145 (75–180) 98 (55–210) 78 (70–85) 80 (70–180) 62 (22–95) 83 (70–240)
  1. NS not significant, LVSWI left ventricular stroke work index, PaO2/FiO2 oxygen fraction ratio, KW Kruskal-Wallis test
  2. Mean ± SD or median (range). p values are the result of the group-by-time interaction in the repeated-measures ANOVA (0–6 h) or the Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric parameters at 3 h and 6 h