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Table 2 Pre-ECMO characteristics, ventilator/ECMO settings, and outcomes

From: Prone positioning under VV-ECMO in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

  All patients (n = 25) Prone ECMO (n = 14) Supine ECMO (n = 11) P value
Age (years) 59 (49.5–63) 59 (48–63) 57 (48–66) 0.82
Male sex, n (%) 22 (88) 12 (85.7) 10 (90.9) 1
Body mass index (kg/m2) 32 (28.4–37.5) 31.5 (28–38) 33.6 (28.4–37.6) 0.86
Comorbidities
 Any, n (%) 6 (24) 3 (21.4) 3 (27.3) 1
 Hypertension, n (%) 12 (48) 6 (42.8) 6 (54.5) 0.7
 Diabetes, n (%) 10 (40) 5 (35.7) 5 (45.4) 0.7
SAPS II 60 (40–65) 59.5 (46–62) 61 (38–80) 0.39
Delay symptoms-ECMO (days) 16 (11–18) 15 (11–20) 16 (10–16) 0.94
Delay mechanical ventilation-ECMO (days) 7 (4–10) 6.5 (4–10) 7 (4–13) 0.99
Chest imaging (X-rays or CT)
 Consolidation, n (%) 14 (56%) 11 (78.6) 3 (27.3) 0.02
 Ground glass opacity, n (%) 25 (100) 14 (100) 11 (100)
 Bilateral infiltration, n (%) 25 (100) 14 (100) 11 (100)
PaO2/FiO2 ratio before ECMO (mmHg) 84 (69–98) 84 (67–96) 87 (66–102) 0.77
Prone position before ECMO, n (%) 25 (100) 14 (100) 11 (100)
Neuromuscular blockers, n (%) 25 (100) 14 (100) 11 (100)
iNO before ECMO, n (%) 21 (84) 12 (85.7) 9 (81.8) 1
Corticosteroids, n (%) 4 (16) 1 (7.1) 3 (27.3) 0.29
MV and ECMO settings the first day of ECMO
 Tidal volume (mL/kg) 2.6 (1.9–2.9) 2.4 (1.7–3.1) 2.6 (2.1–2.8) 0.71
 Plateau airway pressure (cmH2O) 26 (23–29) 26 (25–29) 26 (21–29) 0.52
 PEEP (cmH2O) 14 (11–20) 14 (12–20) 14 (10–20) 0.47
 Driving pressure (cmH2O) 10 (9–13) 11 (10–14) 9 (8–12) 0.44
 Respiratory rate (cycles/min) 14 (12–18) 18 (13–25) 12 (12–14) 0.006
 Respiratory system compliance (mL/cmH2O) 25 (15–32) 24 (14–30) 28 (18–33) 0.36
 Inspired fraction of oxygen (%) 50 (50–80) 55 (50–72.5) 50 (40–80) 0.53
 ECMO blood flow (L/min) 5.9 (5–6.3) 5.8 (5.2–6.7) 5.9 (4.9–6) 0.31
 Sweep gas flow (L/min) 5 (4–6) 5.5 (4.5–6.2) 4 (3.5–5) 0.04
 Membrane lung fraction of oxygen (%) 100 (80–100) 100 (80–100) 100 (90–100) 0.38
Outcomes
 ECMO weaning, n (%) 11 (44) 3 (21.4) 8 (72.7) 0.02
 ECMO duration (days) 10 (5–13) 11 (6–13) 6 (3–12) 0.28
 28-day mortality, n (%) 14 (56) 11 (78.6) 3 (27.3) 0.02
 Discharged alive from ICU, n (%) 10 (40) 2 (14.3) 8 (72.7) 0.005
 Still in ICU, n (%) 1 (4) 1 (7.1) 0 1
  1. Data are expressed as number (%) or median [IQR]. Analyses were performed with the GraphPad Prism 6 software (San Diego, CA). All tests were two-tailed, with α level at 0.05. To compare the prone ECMO group to the supine ECMO group, we used the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables and the exact Fisher test for categorical ones
  2. SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, IQR interquartile range, CT computed tomography, PaO2 arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICU intensive care unit