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Table 1 Characteristics of included patients, stratified by HbA1c

From: Unrecognized diabetes in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Characteristic Total (N = 44) HbA1c < 5.7% (N = 4) HbA1c ≥ 5.7 < 6.5% (N = 16) HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (N = 24)
Age—median (IQR) [years] 61.5 (53.0–68.0) 53.5 (43.8–64.0) 64 (53.8–68.0) 59 (53.8–69.8)
Male sex—no. (%) 32 (72) 3 (75) 13 (81) 16 (66)
Caucasian race—no. (%) 32 (72) 3 (75) 13 (81) 16 (66)
BMI—median (IQR) [kg/m2] 29.4 (26.2–32.7) 27.8 (24.9–30.6) 27.7 (25.5–34.8) 29.5 (26.9–32.6)
HbA1c—median (IQR) [%] 6.5 (6.1–6.7) 5.6 (5.5–5.6) 6.2 (5.9–6.3) 6.7 (6.6–7.1)
Maximum CRP—median (IQR) [mg/dl] 31.5 [20.5–35.5] 18.3 [16.9–20.9] 29.8 [19.7–35.9] 33.0 [22.4–35.8]
Maximum IL-6—median (IQR) [ng/l] 797.9 [381.7–1886.3] 284.9 [212.2–383.2] 1097.4 [403.8–2200.3] 851.9 [419.3–2156.3]
Known comorbidity*—no. (%)
 Metabolic syndrome 8 (18) 0 (0.0) 4 (25) 4 (17)
 Prediabetes 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Diabetes mellitus type I 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Diabetes mellitus type II 7 (15) 1 (25) 0 (0) 6 (25)
 Cardiovascular 11 (25) 2 (50) 2 (13) 7 (29)
 Hypertension 19 (43) 2 (50) 7 (44) 10 (42)
 Renal 6 (13) 0 (0) 3 (19) 3 (13)
 Liver 4 (9) 0 (0) 2 (13) 2 (8)
 Metastatic disease 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Hematological malignancy 2 (4) 0 (0) 2 (13) 0 (0)
 Non-hematological malignancy 3 (7) 1 (25) 2 (13) 0 (0)
 Immunosuppression 5 (11) 0 (0) 3 (19) 2 (8)
 COPD 6 (13) 0 (0) 2 (13) 4 (17)
 Asthma 4 (9) 1 (25) 2 (13) 1 (4)
 Respiratory disease—others 4 (9) 1 (25) 3 (19) 0 (0)
 Neurologic comorbidity 3 (7) 1 (25) 2 (13) 0 (0)
Chest radiographic findings consistent with viral pneumonia—no. (%) 43 (98) 4 (100) 16 (100) 23 (96)
SARS-CoV-2-PCR positive—no. (%) 44 (100) 4 (100) 16 (100) 24 (100)
Invasive mechanical ventilation—no. (%) 35 (80) 2 (50) 13 (81) 20 (84)
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation—no. (%) 4 (9) 1 (25) 1 (6) 2 (8)
Death in hospital—no. (%) 11 (25) 0 (0) 4 (25) 7 (29)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
  2. *If specified in the patients’ health records